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List the 10 Major Organs of the Abdomen ? (e,s,s/l i,l,p,s,k,b,ro) Esophagus, Stomach, Small & Large Intestine, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen, Kidneys (+ 2 Ureter), Bladder (Including Urethra), Reproductive Organs.
Liver Function 1, Alcohol ? Metabolize.
Liver Function 2, Bile ? Secreation.
Liver Function 3, Clotting Factors ? Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
Liver Function 4, Drugs & Hormones ? Deactivate.
Liver Function 5, Urea ? Production.
Liver Function 6, Fat ? Break down of Stored fat for use by the Body Tissue to Produce Energy
Liver Function 7, Glucose ? Glucose >< Glycogen (Stored, Sugar Low) (?)
Liver Function 8, Heat ? Production.
Liver Function 9, Storage ? Iron & Vitamin (including A) Storage.
Pancreas - 2 Main Functions of ? 1. Production of Pancreatic Juices Secreated into Duodenum via Pancreatic Duct. 2. Produce INUSLIN (Beta).
Pancreas - Insulin is ? Is a Hormone Produced by Specialist Cells in the Pancreas called The Islets of LANGERHANS. It Controls Metabolism of Glucose, Which can Only be Adequately Absorbed into cells of the Body in the Presence of Insulin.
Shock - is ? Shock is Inadeqate Tissue Perfusions due to Derancement(?) of Circulation Control or Circulatine Fluid
Shock - Can be Caused by ? Hypovolaemia. Burns. Severe Diarrhoea. Profuse Sweating. Cardia Origin, Myocardial Infarction, Neurogenic Spinal Injuries. ANAPHYLAXIS (Extreme Alergic Reaction). SEPSIS (Septic Blood Posoning).
Shock - Without Intervension may Progress to ? Death.
Shock - Syncope ( Fainting) Attack is a ? Transient Vascular & Neuro-Genic Reaction.
Shock - Syncope Usually Caused by ? Cerebral Hypoxia (Deficiency of Oxygen) Secondary to Inadequate Cerebral Blood Flow.
Shock - Syncope Manifested by ? Manifested by Sudden Temporary loss of Consciousness.
Shock - Syncope Induced by ? Stress, Pain or Fright.
Patient Observation Factors - the Main 4 ? Respiratory, Circulation, Neurological & Rotor / Sensory.
Patient Observation Factors - 6 Respiratory ? 1. Pattern, 2. Rate, 3. Depth, 4. Difficulty, 5. Odour of Breath, 6. Patency.
Patient Observation Factors - 5 Circulation ? 1. Pulse (Radial, Corotid, Femoral & Sub Clavicle, 2. Volume, Tension, 3. External Fluid Loss, 4. Estimate Volume of Blood loss, 5. Pulse Distal to Injury.
Patient Observation Factors - 2 Neurolgical ? 1. Level of Consciousness, 2. Base line on Glasgow Coma scale.
Patient Observation Factors - 1 Rotor / Sensory ? 1. Establish Distal to Injury site & for any or all suspected Spinal Cases.
Describe the 5 Managements of an Open Fracture ? 1. Stabilise & Immobilise injured Limb, 2. Administer Pain Relief, 3.Dress Wound & check Skin Surrounding the Wound, 4.Check Peripheral Pulse Distal to the Fracture & Check Site of Fracture, 5.Anatomical Realignment as a Positive result of Immobilisation.
What are the 10 Principle Factors to be taken into account Prior to Administrating Oxygen ? (1 to 4 of 10) 1. Is the Airway Open, 2. Is the Airway likely to become blocked at a later stage (Through Injury, Burn Damage etc), 3. Has the Patient an Adequate Respiratory effort to allow Oxygen to be Benificial, 4. Is IPPV Indicated.
What are the 10 Principle Factors to be taken into account Prior to Administrating Oxygen ? (5 to 7 of 10) 5. What O2 Concentration & Flow is required, 6. Has the Patient been made Aware of what Has been Offered, 7. Patient to be Constantly Monitered during O2 Administration.
What are the 10 Principle Factors to be taken into account Prior to Administrating Oxygen ? (8 to 10 of 10) 8. Is the Enviroment safe to use O2 Therepy, 9. What is the Correct Equipment to be used & has it benn Checked, 10. All Contruaindication taken into account prior to it's Administration.
Accident Organization ? (1 to 2 of 7) 1. Safety of Patient, Crew & other Rescuers, 2. Organisation of Appropriate Support, Paramedic, Medical, Ambulance Officer & Fire Service.
Accident Organization ? (3 to 4 of 7) 3. PRIMARY Assessment - Life Saving Measures. 4. SECONDARRY Assessment - Other Accessible Injuries, O2 Therapy / Pain Relief,
Accident Organization ? (5 to 6 of 7) 5. Determine & Agree Rescue Treatment, 6. FULL Assessment (Once Accessible) & Treatment Required Prior to Removal,
Accident Organization ? (7 of 7) 7. Final Assessment - Removal Arrangements & Final Treatment Prior to Leaving Scene. (Place Blue Call ?)
Describe the SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION System ? Oxygenated Blood to Tissues, from LEFT VENTRICLE, via ARTERIAL Networks to ARTERIOLES, Arterioles to CAPILLARIES. DEOXYGENATED Blood from Tissues, CAPILLARIES to VENULES, To RIGHT ATRIUM via VENUS RETURN.
Explain the 3 Main Functions OF ERYTHROCYTES ? 1. Contain Heamoglobin, 2. Carry Oxygen to Tissues, 3. Return Co2 to Lungs
Explain the 3 Main Functions of LEUCOCYTES ? 1. Protect from infection, 2. Ingest Bacteria, 3. Produce Antibodies.
Explain the 4 Main Functions of PLASMA ? 1. Carries Nutrients, Salts, Proteins & Blood Cells, 2. Carries Enzymes & Hormones from Glands, 3. Contains Clotting Factors, 4. Transports dissolved Co2.
Heart, Describe the Structure of the Electrical Conduction System ? (1 to 5) 1. SA Node in Right Atrium (Pacemaker), 2. AV Node in Septum near Triscuspid Valve, 3. Impulse pass through of Bundle of HIS in Interventrichlar Septum, 4. Right & Left Bundle Branches in Septum, 5. Purkinjie Fibres Radiating through Myocardium.
Describe the Nervous Control of the Heart Rate ? (1 to 4 of 7) 1. Sympathetic & Para-Sympathetic Stimulation Anagonistic to each other, 2. From Cardia centre in Medula Olbongata, 3. Part of Autonomic Nervous System, 4.Para Sympatetic via Vagus Nerve acts upon SA & AV Nodes & Atrial Muscle.
Describe the Nervous Control of the Heart Rate ? (5 to 7 of 7) 5. Sym Pathetic acts upon SA & AV Nodes & Myocardium of Atria & Ventricles, 6. Para Sympathetic Slows Heart Rate & Force, 7. Sympathetic Speeds Rate & Force of Heart.
Describe in detail the 4 Factors which affect Venus Return ? 1. Low Return Valves in Venous System, 2. Muscular action Against the Veins, 3. Gravity from Head & Upper Body, 4. Negative Pressure in Thorax brought about by Respiration.
Anatomical Location of the STOMACH ? Situated in the Epigastric, Umbilical & Left Hypochondriac Regions of the Abdominal Cavity.
Stomach - 4 Main Functions of the STOMACH ? 1. Acts as a temporary Reservoir for food, Allowing Digestive Enzymes to work, 2. Prouduce Gastric Juices, 3. Muscular Action Mixes Gastric Juices with Food, 4. Allows a Limited Amount of Nutrient Adsorbtion to take place.
Foods Journey - 1.Mouth Mastication results in Food becoming a soft Bolus, Saliva is added to Soften the Bolus & Start the Digestibe Process.
Foods Journey - 2.Epiglotis Membrane lined Cavity Behind nose & Mouth.
Foods Journey - 3.Oesphagus Part of the Alimentary Canal
Foods Journey - 4.Stomach Acts as a Reservoir, Allowing Time to Churn & Mix with Gastric Juices to Convert the Food to Chyme.
Foods Journey - 5.Small Intestine Duodenum, Jejunum & Ilium. Chyme from Stomach via Pyloric Sphincter, Bile from Liver & Pancreatic Juices are Added to allow Conversion of Chyme to Nutrients for Absorbtion.
Foods Journey - 6.Large Intestine Caecum, Ascending/Transverse/Decending Colon & Rectum. Absorbs Water, Salts & Minerals Alowing Waste Material to be Consolidated
Nervous - Structure of the Spinal Cord ? (1-3 of 7) 1. A cylindrical elongated part of the Central Nervous System, 2. Situated within the Vertebral Canal, Completly Surrounded by the Spinal Meninges & Cerebral Spinal fluid, 3. Meniges consists of Dura Matter, Arachnoid Matter & Pia Matter.
Nervous - Structure of the Spinal Cord ? (4-7 of 7) 4. In an adult the Spinal Cord extends from the Foramen Magnum & Atlas to the 1st & 2nd Lumbar Vertebrae, 5. It is about 45 cm long, 6. It is composed of Grey matter in the Centre & Surrounded by White matter, 7. There are 31 pairs of Spinal Nerves.
Nervous - Function of the Spinal Cord ? (1-3 of 4) 1. Link between Brain & Spinal Cord, 2. Contains Vital Centres, Respiratory, Cardiac & Vaso Motor, 3. Allows Motor Fibers to cross over, Thus Right side of the Brain controls the Left side of the Body,
Nervous - Function of the Spinal Cord ? (4 of 4) 4. Contains Reflex Centres, Controlling Food/Air Passages & Reflex actions (Swallowing, Vomiting, Coughing & Sneezing).
location of the Thalamus & Hypothalamus ? The Thalamus & Hypothalamus which Control the Automatic Nervous System are Deep Inside the base of the Cerebrum.
Thalamus ? The Thalamus Receives Most of the Sensory Impulses from the Body & Distributes them to Special Sense Areas.
Hypothalamus ? Contains the Heat Regulation Centre & is Concerned with Hunger, Thirst, & Emotional Changes.
Respiration - The Chemical Process that will Influence Respiration ? 1. Chemical Sensors for Co2, 2. Stimulates Respiratory centre in Medulla, 3. Increase Respiratory drive, 4. PH Control of Blood (Buffer System)
Respiration - Progression & Cause of Chronic Bronchitis ? (1-5 of 10) 1. Progressive Inflammatory Disease, 2. Caused by exposure to irritants, 3. Changes occur to Mucus membrane of the Bronchi, 4. Oedema, 5. Narrowing of the Bronchioles due to Fibrosis.
Respiration - Progression & Cause of Chronic Bronchitis ? (6-10 of 10) 6. Reduced Cilliary activity, 7. Stagnant Mucous may partially or completely block small Bronchioles, 8. Results in Hypoxia, 9. Recurring Chest Infections, 10.Exacerbated by cold damp conditions.
Respiration - 5 Causes of Asphyxia ? 1. Obstruction of air Passages, 2. Chest or Lung Trauma,3. Lung Disease or Illness, 4. Paralysis of Respiratory Nerves or Muscles, 5. Non - Oxygen Atmospheres
Respiration - Anoxia ? Absence of Oxygen.
Respiration - Dyspnoea ? Difficulty Breathing.
Respiration - Apnoea ? Cessation of Breathing.
Respiration - Hyperventilation ? Rapid Breathing
Respiration - The 6 Mechanics of Normal Respiration ? 1. Chest cavity enlarged (Upward & Outward movement), 2. Lungs Expand, 3. Diaphragm Flattens, 4. Air Pressure in Chest Cavity drops causing Suction, 5. Atmospheric Air drawn into Lungs, 6. Diaphragm relaxes, Rib Cage falls, Volume decreases & Lungs Empty.
Skeletal - 5 Classifications of Bone ? Flat, Long, Irregular, Short & Sesamoid.
Skeletal - Flat Bone ? Two Layers of Compact Bon with a Thin Layer of Spongy In-between. They Provide Protection Examples - Scapula, Pelvis & Cranium.
Skeletal - Long Bone ? Consist of an Elongated Shaft of Compact Bone. Two Extremities Composed Mainly of Spongy Bone Surrounded by a Layer of Compact Bone. Examples - Found in Limbs. Humerus, Radial, Ulna, Femur, Tibia & Fibula.
Skeletal - Iregular Bone ? Similar to Short Bones in Construction but More Complex in Shape & Can not easily be put into other Categories. Examples - Vertebrae & Several Facial Bones.
Skeletal - Short Bone ? Consists of Smaller Masses of Spongy Bone Surrounded by a Layer of Compact Bone with no Shaft. Generally Cuboid in Shape. Examples - Carpus/Wrist & Tarsus/Ankle.
Skeletal - Sesamoid Bone ? Small Bone Located in Tendons. Example - Patella.
Skeletal - Compact/Dense Bone ? Dense Tissue Containing few Spaces, which has High Stress Bearing Capabilities.
Skeletal - Cancellous/Spongy Bone ? Lighter Bone Tissue Characterized by Many Spaces which Contains Red Marrow.
Skeletal - Articular Cartilage ? Part of the Joint at each end of a Long Bone.
Skeletal - Medullliary Canal ? Contains Yellow Marrow.
Skeletal - Periosteum ? Outer Protective Covering (Supplying Blood to and from Bone)
Terminology - Superior ? Above the point being referred to (Can also mean Upper).
Terminology - Distal ? Away from the point of Attachment
Terminology - Medial ? Towards Middle of the Body.
Terminology - Posterior ? Towards the Rear, or Behind.
Terminology - Inferior ? Below the point being referred to (Can also mean Lower).
Terminology - Proximal ? Nearest the point of Atachment.
Terminology - Lateral ? Away from the Midline of the Body.
Terminology - External ? Outer ?
Terminology - Interion ? Towards the Front.
Term - Tetraplegia ? Paralysis of all 4 Limbs.
Term - Quadriplegia ? Paralysis of all 4 Limbs.
Term - Hemiplegia ? Paralysis or Partial Paralysis of 1 side of the Body.
Term - Paraplegia ? Paralysis of the Lower Limbs, which may Involve the Bladder & Rectum.
Term - Monoplegia ? Paralysis of 1 Limb.
Term - Neurology ? Study of Diseases of the Nervous System.
Term - Amnesia ? Loss of Memory.
Created by: Grendeloak