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IOC4 WGU

TermDescription
Olmecs Gulf Coast
Pawnee Nebraska/Platte River
Cherokee Trail of Tears (Southeast, North & South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, & Tennessee)
Mayans Southern Mexico/Yucatan
Inca Peru/Chile
Aztec Mexico
Nez Perce Idaho/Oregon
Christopher Columbus Funded by Queen Isabella of Spain
Christopher Columbus Sailed with Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
Christopher Columbus Landed in San Salvador (mistaken for Indies) & explored Cuba
Hernan Cortez Sailed from Cuba to Mexico
Hernan Cortez Founded Vera Cruz & Conquered the Aztec Empire in 1591
Vasco Nunez de Balboa Crossed Isthmus of Panama & Discovered Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan Sailed on 3 year voyage around the world
Francisco Pizarro Overtook the Inca in Peru/Established Lima & Peru
Hernando de Soto Traveled from FL to Carolinas/moved westward to Mississippi River
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado traveled to KS (west of Grand Canyon)
Encomienda Opression of Native Americans by the Spanish
Conquistidors Soldiers who were granted trusteeship over indigenous people
Conquistidors Also known as Encomienda; Seized land, increased taxes, and forced natives into slavery
Requerimeinto Document threatening to enslave Native Amercians if Spanish demands were not meet
Black Legend Description of Spaniards oppression of Native Americans
The Great Migration Result of persecution of the Puritans in the 1630's
Toleration Act Freedom of religion in Baltimore to anyone professing to believe in Jesus Christ
Treaty of Tordesillas Divided land between Spain & Portugal
Cabot Explored East Coast of North America
Da Gama Sailed around Africa to India
Da Gama Opened first all water trade route between Europe & Asia
Verrzonno First European to sight NY
Polo Inspired Columbus with descriptions of the Far East
Jamestown 1607; Chesapeake Bay, VA
Jamestown John Smith lead colony; John Rofe married Pocahontas
Jamestown Colony failed due to food shortages, Indian attacks, malaria, diseases, distractions caused by gold digging
William Bradford First governor of the Puritan colony in Cape Cod
Roger Williams Founder of Rhode Island in 1636
William Penn Founder of PA and the Quakers
New England Puritan settlement including MA, RI, CT; Bay colony relying on fishing, whaling, fur trade. Boston was the major trading center. It was mercantile class dominated and ties with England diminished
Mid-Atlantic VA, MD; Rural agricultural economy of tobacco & cotton; Slavery existed and exchange of goods with England was kept by upper class
Southern NC, SC, GA; agricultural economy of rice, cotton, & tobacco; Slavery and cash crops were dominant; Charleston was a major port and strong ties with England ensued due to trading
Sugar Act 1764; Great Britain taxed colonies on sugar, molasses, wine, and cloth
Stamp Act 1765; Required an official stamp on all documents; John Adams "Pot is set to boil"
Tea Act 1773; Allowed British East Indie tea co. to sell tea to colonies w/out paying tax; end result was Boston Tea Party
Declaratory Act Asserted British governments right to impose taxes
Townsend Act Duty tax, search, & seizure
Quartering Act British soldiers were permitted to live in colonists homes for free
Boston Massacre 6 colonists shot in Boston during fight between colonists & British troops
Trail of Tears 1838; government forced 15,000 Cherokee to leave GA for OK; 4,000 casualities suffered enroute
Manifest Destiny Belief that U.S. had a divine mission to expand & spread democracy & freedom
Louisana Purchase Purchased for $15 million in 1803 by President Jefferson; the largest single addition to the U.S.
Annexation of Texas 1845; securing of TX from Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The U.S. acquired territories at the end of the Mexican War in 1848; now known as New Mexico, AZ, CA, & parts of CO, UT, & NV
Gadsden Purchase U.S. purchase of what is now the southern border of AZ & NM from Mexico in 1853
Alaska 1867; Purchased for over $7 million largely because of William Seward
Hawaii Annexation of the islands & added to U.S in 1898 w/support of President McKinley
North Industrial economy; opposed slavery
South Agricultural economy; supported slavery
Compromise of 1850 Admitted CA a free state
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854; allowed new states to decide slavery; anti-slavery movement used KS as focal point to stop slavery
The movement fueled by 1853 publication of Unlce Tom's Cabin. a portrayal of cruelties of slavery and rallying point for movement against it
Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court ruled owners could take their private property (slaves) into free territory
John Brown John Brown carried out raid on Federal Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VA; result was open rebellion
Anti-slavery movement 1861; Northerners were not willing to compromise with Southerners & Southerners did not want any limits on slavery
Emancipation Proclamation 1863; Lincoln published document after no compromise reached ending slavery in the rebelling states
Reconstruction Attempt by abolitionist to revamp southern states to destroy any trace of slave culture
Post WWI Economy of U.S. expanded at unprecedented rates
Buying on credit Became commonplace after WWI; by 1929 more than $7 billion was owed to creditors
Stock Market Crash of 1929 Began in October, and by end of 1929, over $25 billion of investments had been lost
Stock Market Crash of 1929 Banks wereforced to close & Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff attempting to increase revenues
Franklin Roosevelt 1932; New Deal proposing legislation to boost busniess & assist people; created FDIC; SSA of 1935 created safety net; beginning of federal government taking role in everyday economy
George Washington "As the first of everything in our situation will serve to establish a Precedent"
James Madison "It is devoutly wished on my part, that these precedents may be fixed on true principles"
Thomas Jefferson Louisana Purchase; commissioned Lewis & Clarke
Abraham Lincoln Civil War; ended slavery
Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal; created reform programs
John F. Kennedy Space program, civil rights, & Vietnam
Richard Nixon Diplomatic opening w/China; Watergate
Dwight Eisenhower General during WWII
Woodrow Wilson President during WWII
Immigration surged due to demand for labor; between 1866-1915 25 million foreigners came to U.S.
Steel surged after 1865 driven by need for steam, oil, steel, & coal
Railroad Transcontinental RR completed in 1869; beginning of development of cities reducing families living on farms
Unionization Due to increased educated public, damand for better wages, working conditions, & job security
WWI Began in 1914 in Europe the U.S. was determined to remain neutral; entered 3 years later as Russia on verge of revolution
WWII Forced into war by Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; U.S. aided England & France; supplied half man power and 3/4 materials for invasion of Europe on D-Day in 1944
Major U.S. events post WWII Cold War ('45-'90); Korean War ('50-'53); Post-War Baby Boom; Civil Rights Movement; Vietnam War; Space Program/ Moon Landing ('61-'69); Fall of Soviet Union; & Rise of Terrorism
Relief Map Maps show contour lines or shaded areas to indicate elevation
Climate Map Use contour lines or shading to show long term conditions
Political Map Use lines or colors to show boundaries, populations, & affiliations
Topographical Map Uses lines & colors to show elevation & landform shapes to show 3D shapes in 2D. Lines close together show steep inclines; lines far apart show flat terrain
Physical Map Use colors, lines, symbols, tints, & shading to show physical characteristics; oftenr show roads or other objects
Gerard Mercator created 1st projection map in 16th century
Conic Projections Created in 20th Century; superimposed a cone on globe
Equal-Area Projections Maps today use equal-area projections with horizontal parallels.
Robinson 1963; used by U.S. geographic service; National Geography society; shows features w/out interruption or little distortion
Characteristics of Ecosystems Dynamic; interaction among living and non-living members; self-sustaining; biomes are mutually supportive
Tundra cold temps; permafrost; no trees/tall plants; shrubby vegetations w/roots that don't penetrate subsoil; mosquitoes because of standing water
Tropical Forest Variable rainfall; wet and dry seasons; high amounts of light; # of high tree species; unusually high # of species
Desert Less than 30 cm of annual rainfall; aren't always hot, some cold at night, some cold year round; cacti-succulents; desert mice, snakes, nocturnal species
Grassland Seasonal drought; periodic fires; grasses predominant vegetation; nutrients stored underground; birds, small rodents, grazing mammals (bison)
Savannah Alternate rainy seasons with periods of drought; peridoic fires; perennial grasses, flowering trees, fire adapted; large herbivores (zebras), their predators (lions), predominant herbivores are insects (ants and termites)
Freshwater Biomes less than 1% salt concentration; only cover a small area of Earth's surface; include swamps, ponds, & lakes
Marine Biomes 3% salt concentration; ocean biomes are found throughout 75% of Earth's surface
Rivers Moving water; oxygen content of water is generally high
Maya Flourished in rain forest of southern Mexico until 900 A.D. when climate changed
Hohokam Moved to present day AZ as climate became more arid; developed irrigation canals
Elevation Earth grows colder at higher elevations; temps drop 3.5 degrees F for every 1,000 feet of altitude above sea level
Latitude As Earth tilts and rotates, various areas receive more direct rays from sun
Deforestation Destruction of large areas of forest due to clear cutting by humans
Global Warming Use of fossil fuels, coal, oil, natural gas, & gasoline has increased levels of carbon dioxide in lower atmospher
Energy Development Petrolrum production has negative impact by increaing human activity; hyrdroelectric projects alter terrain
Population Growth As human population increases, farming, construction, mining, & energy development decrease
Political policies of U.S. Dictated by presence or lack of natural resources
U.S. Demand for Petroleum Dictated that the U.S. will be involved in mid-east countries to protect oil supply
Japan after WWI Emerged after WWI as world power & industrial giant; did not have natural resources (iron ore, rubber, oil)
Consumption of Natural Resources As demand increases, the ability to keep supply and cost down decreases
Russian crude oil supply Russia has become major supplier of crude oil driving economy to growth and causing potential to over-expand
Demarcations of political units Mountains, rivers, lakes, oceans, deserts, swamps, & forests
Dictate political boundaries Physical features, cultural areas, & geometric lines
Factors determining population growth economic opportunity, political conditions, climate, natural resources, real estate, & pricing
Factors influencing how society develops Climate, locations, natural boundaries, technology, & natural resources
Renewable Resources Paper, glass, & aluminum
Non-Renewable Resources Raw petroleum, iron, copper, & uranium
President Commander/Chief
Vice President Leader of Senate
Legislative Branch Congress, House of Rep., & Senate
Congress Declare war, maintain military, regulate commerce, & coin money
House of Representatives Two year terms; number of representatives per state based on state's population
House of Representatives Tax laws, power to impeach President, decide if gov. officials go to trial
House of Representatives 435 members
Senate 100 members
Senate 6 year term
Senate Power to remove official from office; hold trials for govt. officials
Senate Confirm/disapprove treaties or Presidential appts.
Judicial Branch Supreme Court
Supreme Court Highest court in U.S.
Federal Court Lower than Supreme Court; created in Congress
Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 Gave judges appts. for life
Stare decisis Courts should attempt to follow precedents set in previous cases
Unity Federal governemnt can make decisions binding on all lower levels of govt.
Inefficiency Designed so no level of govt. could become tyrannical
Administration National govt. can hire experts/skilled admin.
Participation Examples including voting in local, state, & national elections
National Power Govt. excerpts power over states by direct orders, preemption of auth., & grants in aide
State Power States have limited power over fed. govt.; can excercise power through lobbying
Fundamental Federalism 1787-1860; the basic rules of federalism were established
Dual Federalism 1853-1933; National & state govts. had distinct jurisdicitions & didn't intrude upon each other
Cooperative Federalism 1933-1968; National govt. stepped in when states were unable to solve problems
Coercive Federalism 1968-1990's; National govt. assumed so much power that state & local govts. were reduced to minor roles
Devolutionary Federalism 1990's-Present; Govt. begun transferring auth. back to each state
Strength of U.S. 2 party system Allows for greater representation of people
Weakness of U.S. 2 party system Excludes any opinions outside of 2 parties
Magna Carta Britain; 1215; Need royal assent for bill to become law
Declaration of Independence Rally colonists against Britain; promised equality of men, right to be free & pursuit happiness
Articles of Confederation 1777; Left too much power to states & not enough to govt.
Constitution Framers challenged to write a form of govt. that would adhere to principles fought for in Revolutionary War
Bill of Rights Citizens felt Constitution was not enough & insisted Bill of Rights be added before radification
5th Amendment Protection for person accused of crime
Grand Jury Decides if there is enough evidence against accused
Double Jeopardy No person can be charged again for a crime they have been found innocent for in a court of law
Testify No person can be forced to testify against themselves
14th Amendment Life, liberty, & property protected on state level
Property Can't be taken by govt. for good of people w/out compensation
No Person May Lose Life, liberty, or property except by due process of law
Marbury v. Madison 1803; Unconstitutional to force appointments
Dred Scott 1857; Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
Plessy v. Ferguson Challenged the Separate railroad car act of 1892; Court upheld act
Brown v. Board of Education Court ruled separate but equal education unconstitutional
Roe v. Wade 1973; Woman has right to terminate pregnancy
George Washington 1st U.S. President; set precedent for future Presidents
Rosa Parks Sparked Civil Rights movement by refusing to move to back of bus
Jackie Robinson 1st Black Major League Baseball player in 1947
Susan B. Anthony Paved the way for women's rights, led to 19th Amendment
Cesar Chavez Founded the Farm Workers Assoc.; Organized migrant workers through CA in 1960's
Federalists Represented educated property owners, supported Constitution, promised Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalists Worried about a centralized govt. w/too much power, wanted to keep govt. local, Insisted on Bill of Rights
Article I Legislative branch of govt.
Article II Executive branch of govt.
Article III Judicial branch of govt.
Article IV Directions for states; laws, records, court decisions
Article V Amending the Constitution
1st Amendment Five Freedoms: Speech, religion, press, assemble, peacefully protest
2nd Amendment Right to bear arms
3rd Amendment Quatering soldiers
4th Amendment Unreasonable search/seizure
5th Amendment Right to due process
6th Amendment Due process continued
7th Amendment Civil Law
8th Amendment Bail, fines, cruel punishment
9th Amendment Protection of unlisted rights
10th Amendment Power of states & people
11th Amendment Suits against the states
12th Amendment Electing Pres./VP
13th Amendment Slavery ended
14th Amendment Citizens rights in the states
15th Amendment Voting of African Americans
16th Amendment Income Tax
17th Amendment Election of Senators/6 Year Term
18th Amendment Prohibition of alcohol
19th Amendment Right to vote for women
20th Amendment Exec. & Legisl. Terms of office
21st Amendment Repeal of Prohibition
22nd Amendment President restricted to two-four year terms
23rd Amendment Right to vote in District of Columbia
24th Amendment Poll tax prohibited
25th Amendment Presidential succession
26th Amendment Voting age lowered to 18
27th Amendment Laws changing congressional compensation
Created by: Studystudent on 2007-03-06



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