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(Chapter 11)

Digestive System

gastrointestinal system the digestive system
or/o oral cavity (mouth)
stomat/o oral cavity (mouth)
Digestion Begins in the mouth; the breaking down of food into small parts
oral pertaining to the oral cavity (mouth)
herpetic stomatitis inflammation of the oral cavity caused by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSVI) AKA cold sores or fever blisters
mastication chewing
mechanical digestion involves mastication
bucc/o cheek
buccal pertaing to a cheek
gloss/o tounge
lingu/o tounge
glossectomy surgiccal removal of the tounge
sublingual pertaining to under the tounge
hypoglossal pertaining to under the tounge
glossorrhapy suturing of the tounge
glossopathy diseased condition of the tounge
Chemical digestion Includes the secretion of saliva and HC1
HC1 hydrochloric acid found in the stomach
gingiv/o gingiva(e) the gums
gingivitis inflammation of the gingivae (gums)
gingivectomy surgical removal of a gingiva
plat/o hard and soft palate (located at the roof of the oral cavity)
palatitis inflammation of a palate
palatoplasty surgical repair of a palate
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
pharngitits inflammation of the pharynx
esophag/o esophagus
esophagus the tube connecting the pharynx and the stomach
esophagotomy surgical incision of the esophagus
esophageal atresia congenital closure of the esophagus
congenital "born with"
gastr/o stomach (located in the LUQ of the abdomen)
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastromy surgical incision of the stomach
gastrostomy new or artificial opening in the stomach
gastrectomy excision of the stomach
stomatogastric pertaining to the oral cavity and stomach
gastroscopy the process of viewing the stomach with a lighted instrument
gastrodynia a condition of stomach pain
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
Reflux regurgitation (moving in the wrong direction)
duoden/o duodenum
duodenum the 1st section of the small intestine (small bowel)
EGD EsophagoGastroduoDenoscopy viewing the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a lighted instrument
jejun/o jejunum
jejunum 2nd section of the small intestine (small bowel)
jejunojejuno anastomosis a joining of one section of the jejunum to another section of the jejunum
gastrojejunostomy a new/artificial opening between the stomach and jejunum
ile/o ileum
ileum 3rd section of the small intestine (small bowel)
ileostomy new/artifical opening into the ileum
enter/o small intestine or small bowel
enterorraphy suturing of the small intestine (small bowel)
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and small intestine (small bowel)
gastroenterologist a sepecialist in the study of the stomach and small intestine
cec/o cecum
cecum the 1st section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
ileocecal pertaining to the ileum and the cecum
append/o appendic/o appendix
appendix finger-like projection of the cecum located in the RLQ of the abdomen, more specifically, located in the right inguinal (iliac) region of the abdomen
appendectomy surgical removal of the appendix
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
ascending colon 2nd section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
transverse colon 3rd section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
descending colon 4th section of the large intestine (large bowelor colon)
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon, 5th section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
sigmoaidoscope a lighted instrument to view the sigmoid colon
rect/o rectum
rectum the 6th section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
rectocele herniation of the rectum
an/o anus
anus the last (7th) section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
sphincter a ring of muscle that opens and closes
anoplasty surgical repair of the anus
proct/o anus and rectum
proctologist a specialist in the study of the anus and rectum
proctoptosis drooping/sagging of the anus and rectum
prolapse drooping/sagging of the rectum
proctoscope a lighted instrument to view the anus and rectum
proctosigmoidoscopy process of viewing the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon with a lighted instrument
col/o colon/o colon, large bowl, or large intestine
colitis inflammation the the colon
UC ulceritive colitis-inflammation of the colon and the presense of ulcers
colotomy surgical incision of the colon
colectomy surgical removal of the colon
colonoscope lighted instrument to view the colon
colostomy new/artifical opening into the colon
gastroenterocolitis inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and colon
hepat/o liver-located in the RUQ
liver made up of lobes, responsible for creating bile
bile the function of bile is to emulsify (emulsification)
emulsify to break up fats
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatoma tumor or mass of the liver
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
chole- bile or gall
cholecyst/o gall bladder-located inferior to the liver
cyst/o bladder
choledoch/o bile duct (a vessel)
bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gall bladder and from the gall bladder to the duodenum
choledocholithiasis abnormal condition of a stone(s) in a bile duct
choledocholithotomy surgical incision of a bile duc to remove a stone
choledocholithectomy surgical removal of a stone from a bile duct
choledocholithotripsy crushing a stone in a bile duct
cholangioma tumor or mass of a bile vessel
cholangiogram a record of a bile vessel
cholecystitis inflammation of a gall bladder
cholecystogram a record of a gall bladder
cholelithiasis abnormal condition of a gall stone(s)
pancreat/o pancreas
pancreas located posterior to the stomach (retrogastric); creates enzymes that will aid in chemical digestion
pancreatic pertaining to the pancreas
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
peritone/o abdomen
lapar/o abdomen
peritoneal pertaining to the peritoneum (abdomen)
peritonitis inflammation of the abdoemn
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
abdominocentesis surgical puncture of the abdomen
laparotomy surgical incision of the abdomen
laparoscope lighted instrument to view the abdomen
laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gall bladder using a lighted instrument inserted thru an opening in the abdomen
diverticul/o diverticulum(a)
diverticulua blister-like lesions found in the large bowel
diverticulous abnormal condition of the diverticula
diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticula
diverticulectomy surgical removal of a diverticulum
polyp/o polyp
polyp premalignant lesion that can be found in the large bowel
polyposis abnormal condition of polyps
polyectomy surgical removal of a polyp
adhesion tissue that sticks together that shouldn't
stoma any new or artificial opening
dysphagia a condition of painfulor difficult swallowing
aphagia a condition of no swallowing
dysphasia a condition of difficult speech
bradypepsia (bradypepsic) a conidtion of slow digestion
dyspepsia (dyspepsic) a condition difficult digestion AKA indigestion
herni/o (hernia) a protrusion of an organ thru the muscular wall in which it is contained
herniorrhaphy surturing of a hernia
hiatal hernia herniation of the stomach thru the diaphragm
inguinal hernia herniation of the small intestine into the scrotum
umbilical hernia herniation of the small intestine thru the abdominal wall at the umbilicus (belly button)
strangulated hernia the hernia occludes blood supply to the protruding tissue
anorexia (anorexic) a condition of no appetite
halitosis bad breath
eructation (eructate) belching or burping
dental carries extreme tooth decay
emesis (emetic) pertaining to vomiting
hemoptysis expectorating blood
hematemesis vomiting blood
ulcer an erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
perforation a tear or rip
UGI upper gastrointestinal series AKA barium swallow
Barium radiopaque (conrast) material that will illuminate when exposed to x-rays
BaE / BE barium enema
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography - process of recording the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts using x-rays and a lighted instrument
resection excision
EUS endoscopic ultrasound - the process of recording the GI tract using sound and a lighted instrument
peristalsis (peristaltic) pertaining to a wave-like action on the bowels that propels food thru the GI tract
borborygmos the groaning/gurgling sounds made during peristalic activity
colic painful spasms of the GI tract
stool semisolid waste expelled thru the anus AKA feces
defecation the act of expelling feces AKA bowl movement (BM)
flatus (flatulence) gas exoelled thru the anus
diarrhea loose watery stools
constipation difficult defecation
impaction as accumulation of feces in the bowel
ileus a bowel obstruction
obstipation constipation caused by a bowel obstruction (ileus)
melena (melanotic) black, tarry, pungent stool indiative of blood in the fecal matter
pungent a very strong aroma
Hemoccult a test for occult blood in the stool
Hema-Chceck a test for occult blood in the stool
Colo-Rect a test for occult blood in the stool
Hematest a test for occult blood in the stool
Seracult a test for occult blood in the stool
guaiac a test for occult blood in the stool
occult hidden blood that cannot be seen with the naked eye
NG nasogastric tube
gastric lavage washing out the stomach AKA pumping the stomach
gavage a feeding tube
distend to strech out or inflate
cirrhosis a chronic degeneration of liver cells
jaundice a yellow-orangish discoleration of the skin and/or sclera
icterus (iceturs) a yellow-orangish discoleration of the skin and/or sclera caused by a destruction of erythocytes
hemolysis break up / destruction of eryrthocytes
bilirubin dead / broken up erythrocytes
hyperbilirubinemia a blood conditon of excessive bilirubin
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
absorb movment of nutrients into the blood stream
postprandial pertaing to after meals
enzymes chemical catalysts; a chemical that causes a reaction to occur
N+V nausea and vomiting
BS blood sugar, bowel souns, or breath sounds
IBD inflammatory bowel disease
PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy
TPN total parental nutrition
hyperlimentation (hyperal) total parental nutrition
O_P ova and parasites
PUD peptic ulcer disease
LFTs liver function tests
ALK. PHOS. alkaline phosphatase
Dx diagnosis
Px prognosis
ā before
p after
Created by: RBarnes86