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Ch 4 Whole Body

Medical Terminology

abdominal cavity the cavity beneath the thoracic cavity that is seperated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm: contains the liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and kidneys.
anaplasia a change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form.
anatomical position the standard reference position for the body as a whole.
anterior pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body.
aplasia a developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue.
cardiac muscle the muscle that makes up the muscular wall of the heart.
caudal pertaining to the tail.
cell the smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter.
cell membrane the semipermeable barrier that is the outer covering of a cell.
cervical vertebrae the first seven segments of the spinal column; identified as C1 through C7.
chromosomes the threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body.
coccyx the tailbone.
connective tissue tissue that supports and binds other body tissue parts.
cranial pertaining to the skull or cranium.
cranial cavity the cavity that contains the brain.
cytology the study of cells.
cytoplasm a gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. the cytoplasm contains cell organs, called organelles, which carry out the essential functions of the cell.
deep away from the surface and toward the inside of the body.
distal away from or farthest from the trunk of the body, or farthest from the point of origin of a body part.
dorsal pertaining to the back.
dorsum the back or posterior surface of a part; in the foot, the top of the foot.
dysplasia any abnormal development of tissues or organs.
epigastric tissue the region of the abdomen located between the right and left hypochondriac regions in the upper section of the abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the ribs.
epithelial tissue the tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body; it also lines the vessels, body cavities, glands, and body organs.
frontal plane any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet, dividing the body into front and back portions.
genes segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics.
histologist a medical scientist who specializes in the study of tissues.
hyperplasia an increase in the number of cells of a body part.
hypochondriac region the right and left regions of the upper abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs; located on either side of the epigastric region.
hypogastric region the middle section of the lower abdomen, beneath the umbilical region.
hypoplasia Incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells.
inferior below or downward toward the tail or feet.
inguinal region the right and left regions of the upper abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs; located on either side of the epigastric region.
lateral toward the side of the body, away from the midline of the body.
lumbar region the right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen.
McBurney's point a point on the right side of the abdomen
medial toward the midline of the body
mediolateral pertaining to the middle and side of a structure.
membrane a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space
midline of the body the imaginary "line" craeted when the body is divided into equal right and left halves.
midsagittal plane the plane that divides the body (or structure)into right and left equal portions.
mitochondria cell organs (or organelles), which provide the energy needed by the cell to carry on its essential functions.
muscle tissue the tissue capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers.
navel the umbilicus; the belly button.
neoplasia the new and abnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant.
nervous tissue tissues that transmits impulses throughout the body, therby activating, coordinating, and controlling the many functions of the body.
nucleus the central controlling body within a living cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane.
organ tissues arranged together to perform a special function.
pelvic cavity the lower front cavity of the body, located beneath the abdominal cavity; contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs.
peritoneum a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera.
plane imaginary slices (or cuts) made through the body
plantar pertaining to the sole or bottom of the foot.
posterior pertaining to the back of the body.
prone lying facedown on the abdomen.
proximal toward or nearest to the trunk of the body, nearest to the point of the origin of a body part.
ribosomes cell organs (or organelles) that synthesize proteins; often called the "protein factories."
sacrum the singular triangular-shaped bone that results from the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child.
skeletal muscle muscle that is attached to the bone and is responsible for the movemant of the skeleton.
smooth muscle muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines.
spinal cavity the cavity that contains the nerves of the spinal cord; also known as the spinal canal.
superficial pertaining to the surface of the body, or near the surface.
superior above or upward toward the head.
supination a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward.
supine lying horizontally on the back, faceup.
system organs that work together to perform the many functions of the body as a whole.
thoracic cavity the chest cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea.
tissue a group of cells that performs specialized functions.
transverse plane any of the planes cutting across the body, dividing the body into supior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
umbilical region the region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen
umbilicus the navel; also called the belly button.
ventral pertaining to the front; belly side.
visceral pertaining to the internal organs.
visceral muscle smooth muscle
Created by: archos