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PD Bio Units 1, 2, 3

Cell structure and function

Most abundant elements within the body oxygen (65%) carbon (18.5%) hydrogen (9.5%) nitrogen (3.2%)
Four basic types of tissue epithelial (surface covering) connective (supporting) muscular (contracting) nervous (conducting)
Basic structural and functional components cells
homeostasis is a constant internal environment
negative feedback counter-change that returns the factor toward the normal value
normal pH value 7.35-7.43
normal glucose value 80-120mg/100ml
positive feedback changes occurring away from a specific value are continually accelerated
Abnormal function of homeostasis equals disease
Atrophy a gradual decrease in the size of a tissue or organ as a result of a diminished size of its cells
Hypertrophy The growth of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its cells
Hyperplasia Stimulated mitotic divisions in cells by increased functional demands, resulting in an increase in tissue or organ size
Dysplasia Abnormal maturation of cells within a tissue resulting in variations in size, shape, and appearance of cells
Metaplasia The transformation of one cell type to another
Plasma membrane (gatekeeper) structure Composed of phospholipid, protein and carb molecules. Lipids provide major barrier for movement across membrane.
plasma membrane function gives form to cell. controls passage of materials in and out of the cell. transports molecules both directions
Cytoplasm Structure Fluid in which organells are suspended in
Cytoplasm function Serves as matrix in which chemical reactions occur. contains intracellular water
Endoplasmic reticulum structure system of canals and tubules. two types (rough and smooth)
Endoplasmic reticulum function supporting framework of cytoplasm, transports materials and provides attachment for ribosomes
golgi apparatus structure cluster of flattened, membranous sacs involved packaging molecules for secretion and synthesis of carbs and steroids
golgi apparatus function modification of proteins by adding carbs; packages molecules for secretion; secretes lipids and glycoproteins
mitochondria(powerhouse) structure membranous sacs involved in the production of energy (ATP), provides energy for cell
mitochondria(powerhouse) function release energy from food molecules and transform energy to ATP
lysosomes structure membranous sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes which are involved in the digestion of foreign molecules and worn/damaged cells
Fibrils and microtubules structure thin, hollow tubes
Fibrils and microtubules function support cytoplasm and transport materials within the cytoplasm
Nucleus structure largest organelle. contains chromatin and nucleolus
nucleus function contains chromatin (48 chromosomes), nucleolus, and nucleoplasm/ Control center for all cellular functions
nuclear membrane function surrounds nucleus, composed of protein and lipid molecules. the perinuclear cistern is the narrow space between the two walls of the nuclear membrane
chromatin structure fibrous strands composed of protein and Dna molecules. In a differentiated cell the DNA making up the chromosomes cannot be seen individualls because DNA is unpacked and genes are forming the three types of RNA.
Chromatin function conrols cellular activity for carrying on life processes. this material contains the 48 chromosomes, the genetic material which is made up of all the cell genes.
nucleolus structure dense, non-membranous mass composed of protein and rRNA molecules
Nucleolus function Forms and stores ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
(plasma membrane) Hydrophilic mixing with water
(plasma membrane) Hydrophobic not mixing with water
(plasma membrane) integral embedded in the phospholipid bilayer
(plasma membrane) peripheral proteins located on the inner surface, serve as enzymes
(plasma membrane) phoshpolipid bilayer forms a major barrier to water soluble substances
The permeability of a cell membrane to molecules is a function of (there are 4) 1. Size of molecules 2. Solubility in lipids 3. Ionic charge of molecules 4. The presence of carrier molecules
(plasma membrane) the carb containing molecules funtion to (there are 5) 1. Repel negative objects due to - charge 2. Receptors for hormones + regulatory molecules 3. Form specific cell mrkrs,enable like cells to attach and aggregate 4. Enter into immune reactions 5. Cull markers (antigens) which identify blood and tissue
Diffusion Characteristics: passive movements of molecules from high concentration to low Energy Source: Molecular motion Example: Exchange of respitory gases in lungs
Facilitated diffusion Characteristics: Carrier substances are used to speed processes Energy Source: Carrier energy and molecular motion Example: Glucose entering cell with the help of insulin
Osmosis CharacteristicsL Passive movement of solvent molecules through semi-permeable membrane due to concentration difference Energy source: Molecular motion (no ATP) Example: Water movement through cell wall to maintain turgidity
Filtration Characteristics: The movement of water and solutes across the cell membrane due to hydrostatic pressure Energy source: Blood pressure Exampe: Removal of wastes within kidneys
Active transport Charac: movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion – or – movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration Enrgy source: ATP (cellulas energy) Example: Movement of glucose and a.a. through membranes
Pinocytosis Membrane engulfs minute droplets of fluid from surroundings Energy source: Cellular energy Example: Membranes forms vacuoles containing solute and solvent
Phagocytosis Chrchteris: Membrane engulfs minute droplets of fluid from surroundings Energy source: Cellular energy Examples: White blood cell membrane engulfs bacterial cell
Aquaporins (osmosis) cells that form channels specific for the movement of water across cellular membranes
Tonicity (osmosis) concentration of nonpenetrating solutes in intrecellular vs extracellular fluids
Hypotonic solution (osmosis) dilute, causes cell to swell
Hypertonic solution (osmosis) concentrated solution, cell will shrink
Isotonic solution (osmosis) Equal concentrations
Endocytosis A process in which cell takes in materials from the outside by engulfing and fusing them with its plasma membrane.
Exocytosis The process in which the cell releases materials to the outside by discharging them as membrane-bounded vesicles passing through the cell membrane.
Sorting signal unique sequence of a.a. on newly produced proteins
Coat proteins from the cytosol bind with another specific proteins facing the outer surface of the membrane
Docking markers specific proteins facing outer surface of vesicle membrane
v-SNAREs docking markers of secretory vesicles, link to t-SNARES
t-SNARE found on targeted membrane, link to v-SNARES
perinuclear cisternae narrow space between two walls of nuclear membrane
nuclear pores extend through membrane
Nucleoplasm (karyolymph) gel-like medium of nucleus
histones DNA and proteins that make up chromosomes
In the cytoplasm, the mRNA and tRNA... are used by the ribosomes for the assembling of proteins
cisternae minute tubules
Rough ER 1. Ribosomes attached 2. Ribosomes synthesize proteins - mainly integral membrane proteins and proteins to be secreted outside the cell
Smooth ER 1. No ribosomes Involved in lipid synthesis, steroid hormone synthesis, and detox of alcohol, drugs, ets (mainly in the liver)
Drug tolerance greater quantities to achieve the same effect.
With increased amounts of smooth ER... calls can tolerate an increased amount of drugs
Ribosomes Consists of subunits. Each subunit is a rbonucleoprotein particle w/ = amounts of RNA and protein
RNA of ribosomes rRNA
Ribosomes are sites for... protein synthesis
There are two distinct types of ribosomes: 1. those bound to membranes (likk on rough ER) 2. those that are free
proteins that enter the cisternae of golgi apparatus are... packaged within vesicles and make their way to cell membrane for secretion
docking marker compose surface proteins and attach to... docking-marker acceptors
exocytosis release of cargo to the outside of cell
secretion process of proteins synthesized byt he ER and packaged in the GOlgi look at slide
cristae folds of inner membranes, located in the mitochondria
adenosine triphosphate is also known as... ATP
To obtain energy, cells split bond of ATP to obtain... ADP
ATP converted to ADP looks like ATP ------> ADP + Pi + energy for use by cell
Aerobic exercise involves large muscle groups, performed for a long time
Anaerobic exercise performed for a short amount of time, via glycolysis
Aging diseases accumulation of flaws in our mitochondrial DNA
Proteases powerful hydrolytic digestive enzymes
Amount of acid hydrolytic proteases that have been isolated from lysosomes 30 to 50
Rheumatoid arthritis Pain is due to the release of enzymes by lysosomes into joint capsule and digestion of surrounding tissue
Atrophy of uterus normal regression of the uterus following childbirth. Due to lysosome digestive activity.
*How many different cell types are in the human body? 200
*Molecules that are relatively large can cross the plasma membrane if they are... Lipid soluble
Of the 109 elements, how many are normally found in the human tissues? 26
Teeth and bone contains large amounts of: Calcium
Thyroid gland contains large amount of: Iodine
Atoms are... smallest portion of an element that retains the characteristics of the element. Different from each other ONLY in NUMBER of basic particles they have (atomic number)
Electrons -1
Molecular weight of O2 2x16=32
Covalent bonds Atoms sharing one, two, or three electron pairs.
Anions atoms with an electric charge
Cations atoms with a positive charge
Hydrogen bonds result from electrostatic interaction between electronegative atom of a molecule and neighboring hydrogen atom.
Organic compounds all contain Carbon except for... Co2, CO, NaCN[sodium cyanide}, and NaHCO3 [sodium bicarbonate]
Three common inorganic compounds are... Water, Carbon dioxide, and oxygen
Organic compounds have these 5 chracteristics: 1. 4 electrons in outer shell 2. can make 4 covalent bonds 3. Present in a large number of compounds 4. Only H is found more often 5. Can bond to many elements, bust most commonly to H, O, N and more C
Four major classes of organic compounds: 1. nucleic acids 2. Proteins 3. Carbohydrates 4. Lipids
A nucleic acid is composed of nucleotide
nucleotides in nucleic acid contain... a nitrogen-containing base, a 5-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group
a chain of nucleotieds attached through dehydration synthesis by linkages called... phosphodiester linkages
single ring compounds of nucleic acids pyrimidine
double ring compound of nucleic acid purine
adenine and guanine purines
cytosine, thymine, uracil pyrimidines
DNA are organized into a structure called a double helix
Dna molecule consists of what hydrogen bonds? C-G A-T
RNA molecule consists of what hydrogen bonds? C-G A-U
The principle difference between DNA and RNA is... In RNA, uracil takes the plae of thymine
Blueprints of the cell Nucleic acids
How many types of RNA are there? three
RNA has how many strands? one. RNA is single stranded
mRNA is also known as messenger RNA
tRNA is also known as transfer RNA
rRNA is also known as robosomal RNA
messenger RNA acts as a template for protein synthesis
mRNA processing involves the capping of a 5-methyl-guanosine cap
the second process of mRNA is polyadenelated tail of Poly-A tail. This helps protect the strand from digestive enzymes while in the cytoplasm
tRNA carries a.a. in the cytoplasm to the ribosomes and acts as a translation molecule
tRNA has an anticodon that recognizes a sequence of mRNA
rRNA is made in the nucleolus. it travels out into the ctoplasm where it is bound to ribosomal proteins
a ribosome consists of 60% rRNA 40% protein
Protein synthesis involves two major steps: transcription translation
the mRNA is transported into the cytoplasm where it is translated by the ribosome and tRNA to make a functional protein
The principle enzyme that unzips the DNA Helicase
enzymes that help keep the DNA uncoiled Single stranded Binding proteins Topoisomerase
three enzymes that help in transcription helicase, single stranded binding proteins and topoisomerase, and polymerase
Strand that is used as the DNA template Template or antisense strand
DNA strand NOT used for transcription sense strand
a codon includes how many nucleotides? 3
mRNA strand is read 5' to 3'
tRNA molecule that contains anticodon (recognition region)and a.a. recognition sequence that binds the tRNA to the a.a.
Inherited diseases result in defective genes (mutations) that are passed from parent to offspring (ie. sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, many other metabolic disorders)
Proteins are... long chains of a.a.'s
Two proteins can differ from eachother in: 1. Number of a.a. 2. Sequence of a.a. 3. Type of a.a.
Common function of proteins form enzymes, hormones, antibodies, serve as receptor sites, act as carrier molecules in active transport, help regulate osmotic solutions, provide tensile strength, buffer systems, metabolize to provide energy
dipeptide 2 a.a. joined by one peptide bond
polypeptide many a.a. joined by peptide bonds
memorize structures on 28 okay?
chromosome structure composed of DNA and associated proteins that carry hereditary info
chromatid one copy of chromosome formed by DNA replication joined by centromere to another hromatid
centromere area on chromatid that holds them together
gene region of DNA that codes for a specific protein or RNA. Responsible for traits and synthesis of protein molecules
diploid (autosomes) cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
haploid (sex chromosomes) contains half the number of chromosomes (sperm and ova)
chromosomes are responsible for the passing of genetic material from cell to another through the process of DNA replication
very long strand of DNA are wrapped around proteins called... histones
a chromosome consists of two chromatids
humans have how many pairs of homologous chromosomes? 22
photograph of chromosomes karyotypes
a person is homozygous when... homologous chromosomes have alleles that are the same
a person is heterozygous when... the person has different alleles
genotype specific allelic or genetic composition of an organism
phenotype set of physical. observable traits
when alleles are heterozygous, whate allele is expressed? the dominant allele
Down syndrome there is an extra chromosome 21. also known as trisomy-21 or mongolism.
Carbohydrates have four principal functions, and they are: 1. Fuel of a cell 2. Contribute to cellular structure 3. Form a part of the structure of DNA and RNA molecules 4. Can be converted into a storage form such as glycogen that can be converted to glucose
Monosaccharides Simple sugars
Carbohydrates are divided into three categories according to their size: 1. monosacharrides 2. disacharrides 3. polysaccharides
isomers closely related molecules
disaccharides when two monosaccharides are hooked together
3 primary hexose disaccharides are: Maltose Sucrose Lactose
The disaccharide maltose is glucose + glucose
The disaccharide sucrose is glucose + fructose
The disaccharide lactose is glucose + galactose
hydrolosis chemical reaction where a molecule is broken down by a reaction with water
polysaccharides complex carbohydrates composed of many simple sugars bonded in long chains
The two most common polysaccharides of glucose starch and glycogen
how glucose is stored in the body glycogen
lipids are commonly known as... fats
lipids contain mainly... C, H, and O like carbs, but they contain less oxygen and are insoluble in water
fats are categorized as either... saturated or unsaturated
the fats that are solid at room temp saturated
the fats that are liquid at room temp unsaturated
3 saturated fats Butyric CH3-(CH2)2-COOH Palmitic CH3-(CH2)14-COOH Stearic CH3-(CH2)16-COOH
3 unsaturated fats Oleic CH3-(CH2)7-CH=CH-(CH2)7-COOH Linoleic CH3-(CH2)4-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-(CH2)7-COOH Linolenic (look at page 33)
The average adult is what percent water? 50-60%
How many liters of water are in the average human body? 40 liters
Do men or women have more total body water? Men. Women have more fatty tissues
Does total body water percentage decrease or increase as you get older? decrease
do fatter or thinner people have a higher percent of body water? thinner.
Daily water intake/Daily water output 2500 ml
in cases of dehydration, what is secreted? ADH, leading to an increased retention of body fluids
Where is ADH produced? The hypothalmus
Where is ADH secreted from? the posterior pituitary
hypovolemia is also known as dehydration
hypolemia symptoms shrinking of brain cells, plasma volume decrease, weight loss, decreased blood pressure
Hypervolemia is also know as overhydration
Hypervolemia response deceased ADH secretion, increases urinary output
Strong acids dissociate completely in water to form hydrogen ions (H+) and anions
Weak acids hold on to most of their hydrogen ions
[H+] = 10^?M [H+] = 10^-7M
[OH-]= 10^?M [OH-]= 10^-7M
The average young adult has how many liters of blood? 5-6 liters
Thrombocytes Platelets
Plasma is what percent water? 90-92% water 7-9% solids
hematocrit percentage of cellular elements in blood
percentage of hematocrit in blood 45%
normal hematocrit for males 42-48%
normal hematocrit for females 38-44%
another word for plasma serum
largest portion of the plasma constituents plasma proteins
types of plasma proteins albumin, globulins, Clotting factors
functions as osmotic pressure regulator albumin
Globulins Alpha beta Gamma
Alpha and beta function as carrier vehicles to prevent substances in blood from leaving capillary too rapidly
function of Gamma Natural and acquired immunity, antibodies
origin of plasma proteins albumin, alpha, beta formed in liver gamma globulins formed in reticulo-endothelial system
Characteristics of erythrocytes no nucleus, cannot multiply, biconcave dics, no ER, do not synthesize proteins
function of erythrocytes transport hemoglobin
concentration of erythrocytes in males 5.5 million/mm^3
concentration of erythrocytes in females 4.5 million/m^3`
increases # of RBCs Altitude, muscular exercise, temp, age (higher in infants)
hematopoiesis production of all blood cells
erythropoiesis production of RBCs
pathway for erythropoiesis stem cell-->basophilic erythroblast-->polychromatophilic erythroblast-->normoblast (loss of nucleus)--> reticulocyte--> mature RBC
Created by: gemmagrover