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WC U1 Rev. Words

Western Civilization Unit 1 Review words and definition

Define the Scientific Revolution? "Period of time (15th-17th centuries) in which scientific methods and applications became independent from theology and developed fast into a generally recognized way of understanding nature" www.mikeraulin.org/graziano7e/sg/glossary/glosss.htm
Who is Nicolas Copernicus? "Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology"- wikipedia
Who is William Harvey? "English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood; he later proposed that all animals originate from an ovum produced by the female of the species"- http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=william harvey
Who is Galileo? "Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars"-wordnetweb
Who is Johannes Kepler? "German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion"-wordnetweb
Who is Sir Francis Bacon? "English statesman and philosopher; precursor of British empiricism; advocated inductive reasoning"-wordnetweb
Who is Rene Descartes? "French philosopher and mathematician; developed dualistic theory of mind and matter; introduced the use of coordinates to locate a point in two or three dimensionsa"-wordnetweb
Who is Sir Isaac Newton? "English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion"-wordnetweb
Define The Age of Enlightenment? A European intellectual movement (late 17th and 18th centuries) emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton-wordnetweb independent thought process
Who is John Locke? "English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience"-wordnetweb
Who is Thomas Hobbes? "English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings"-wordnetweb
Define Philopsophes. Plural form of philosophers
Define Progress. "progress (from Latin progressus, "an advance") is the idea that the world can become increasingly better in terms of science, technology, modernization, liberty, democracy, quality of life"-wordnetweb
Define deism. "Belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe"-dictionary
Define tolerance. "The ability or willingness to tolerate something, in particular the existence of opinions or behavior that one does not necessarily agree with"-dictionary
Who is Jean Jacques Rousseau? "French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution"-wordnetweb
Who is Mary Wollstonecraft? "English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women; mother of Mary Shelley"-wordnetweb
What is The Vindication of the Rights of Woman? "is one of the trailblazing works of feminism. Published in 1792, Wollstonecraft’s work argued that the educational system of her time deliberately trained women to be frivolous and incapable"-britannica
What is The Social Contract? "An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection"-dictionary
What is The General Will? "a concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole, or, as the U.S. constitution puts it, the "general welfare"-wikipedia
Briefly describe the Scientific Revolution and use two examples from our study. Era associated primarily with the 16th and 17th centuries during which new ideas and knowledge in physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed medieval and ancient views of nature and laid the foundations for modern science. wikipedia
Immanuel Kant defines enlightenment as "man's release from his self-incurred tutelage." Explain what Kant meant by this. Man's ability to experiment and think outside the box. Man's ability to question and be curious.
Compare the political views and the opinions on human understanding of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. How do their views differ on the two subjects? Thomas hobbes believes in a democratic way and likens people to be equal and Hobbes believe in a hierarchy and likens people to animals and predators.
Describe the common themes of Enlightenment that we have established during our study. How do these themes then become the basis for creating a "new world" order in society? (Think about comparing the "Old World" with the "New World") The progress, tolerance, independence (in thought), equality (of all people), deism, are common themes of the Enlightenment. Ex: Vindication of Women,
Created by: russmit14