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The Lang of Medicine

The Language of Medicine Chapter 5 #2

pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats. lipase
a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. It secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins;produces blood proteins; and destroys worn out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weights about 2.5 to 3 pounds. liver
ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
chewing mastication
the sixth, seventh, and eight teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars. molar teeth
roof of the mouth. The hard ______ lies anterior to the soft ______ and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat. palate
organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods). pancreas
small elevations on the tongue. It is a nipple-like elevation. papillae (singular papilla)
salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear. parotid gland
rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, it moves teh contents thru at different rates; stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours. peristalsis
throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose. pharynx
large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines. portal vein
enzyme that digests protein protease
soft tissue within a tooth, containg nerves and blood vessels. pulp
ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. From the Greek pyloros, meaning gatekeeper. It is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it. pyloric spincter
distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum. pylorus
last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus. rectum
ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach. rugae
digestive juice produced by salivary glands. saliva
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands. salivary glands
fourth and last, s shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum sigmoid colon
circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage of closes a natural opening. sphincter
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. the stomash's parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section). stomach
fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol triglycerides
soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate. the latin uva means bunch of grapes. uvula
microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream. villi (singular: villus)
an/o anus
append/0 appendic/o appendix
bucc/o buccal mucosa cheek a mucosa is a mucous membrane lining cavities or canals that open to the outside of the body.
cec/o cecum
celi/o belly, abdomen
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o don't confuse cholecyst/o with cyst/o, which means urinary bladder! gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
col/o colon, large intestine
colon/o colon
dent/i tooth
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o intestines, usually small intestines
esophag/o esphagus
faci/o face
gastr/o stomach
gingiv/o gums
gloss/o tongue
hepat/o liver
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
labi/o lip
lapar/o abdomen
lingu/o tongue
mandibul/o lower jaw, mandible
odont/o tooth
or/o mouth
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
peritone/o peritoneum
pharyng/o throat
proct/o anus and rectum
pylor/o pyloric sphincter
recgt/o rectum
sialaden/o salivary gland
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
uvul/o uvula
amyl/o starch
bil/i gall, bile
bilirubin/o bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e gall, bile
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
glycogen/o glycogen, animal starch
lip.o fat, lipid
lith/o stone
prote/o protein
sial/o saliva, salivary
steat/o fat
-ase enzyme
-chezia defecation, elimiation of wastes
-iasis abnormal condition
-prandial meal
anorexia -orexia anorexia nervosa Lack of appetite. appetite loss of appetite associated with emotional problems such as anger, anxiety, and irrational fear of weight gain.
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. This condiiton occurs with fluid passes from the bloodstream and collecgts in the peritoneal cavity.
borborymus (plural: borborygmi) Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal trac.
constipation difficulty in passing stools (feces).
diarrhea frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
eructation gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
flatus gas expelled through the anus. flatulence is the presence of excessive gas in the stomach and the intestines.
hematochezia passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum. the cause of hematochezia usually is bleeding due to colitis or from ulcers or polyps in the colon or rectum.
jaundice (icterus) yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia).
melena black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood.
nausea unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated wtih a tendency to vomit.
steatorrhea fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter.
aphthous stomatitis inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers. commonly called canker sores...cause unknown.
dental caries tooth decay.
herpetic stomatitis inflammation of the mouth cause by infecgtion with the herpesvirus.
oral leukoplakia white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth.
peridontal disease inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone. gengivitis occurs as a result of accumulation of dental plaque and dental calculus or tarter.
achalasia falure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax.
esophageal cancer malignant tumor of the esophagus.
esophageal varices swollen varicose veins @ the lower end of sophagus. Liver disease (such as cirrhosis &chronic hepatitis) causes increased pressure in veins near and around the liver (portal hypertension)-leads to enlarges, tortuous esponageal veins w danger of hemorage.
gastric cancer malignant tumor of the stomach.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) solids and fluids return to the mnouth from the stomach.
hernia protrusion of an organ or part through the musckle normaly containing it.
peptic ulcer open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
anal fistula abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
colonic polyps benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
colrectal cancer adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both.
crohn disease chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract.
diverticulosis abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall.
dysentery painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection.
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted, varicosde veins in the rectal region.
ileus loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines.
intussusception telescoping of the intestines.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) group of gastronintestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension.
ulcerative coligtis chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers.
volvulus twisting of the intestine on itself.
cholelithiasis gallstones in the gallbladder. calculi=stones. biliary colic=pain from blocked cystic or common bile duct. .
cirrhosis chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
pancreatic cancer malignant tumor of the pancreas.
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
viral hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.
Created by: lauraj5