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Music History Test 1

Paean a hymn that celebrated the deed of primary gods such as Zeus (the chief god) and Apollo (the god of the sun, of music, and of reason)
Dithyramb a wild choral song, mingled with shouts, which did honor to playful Dionysus (the god of wine and fertility)
Symposium a tightly organized social gathering in which adult male citizens came together for conversation and entertainment
Lyre a medium-sized instrument usually fitted with seven strings of sheep gut and plucked by a plectrum of metal or bone
Kithara an especially big lyre
Aulos a wind instrument fitted with a round single reed or with a flat double reed
Pythagoras mathematician in Greek mythology who used music to save one member of his community from the crime of arson
Tibia wood flute, lyre, kithara, and aulos Romans adopted from Greeks; perhaps named for bone-like appearance
Tuba Roman name for the trumpet; a long, straight instrument with a cylindrical bore and a bell at the end; made of bronze and iron with a bone mouthpiece
Seven liberal arts grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
Trivium first 3 of 7 liberal arts: grammar, logic, and rhetoric; deal with language, logic, and oratory
Quadrivium final 4 of 7 liberal arts: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music; scientific disciplines for each uses number and quantitative reasoning to arrive at the truth
Boethius Roman music theorist; descendant of an aristocratic family of Roman senators
Fundamentals of Music written by Boethius; became required school text for music theory
Musica mundane music of the spheres
Musica humana music of the human body
Musica instrumentalis earthly vocal and instrumental music
Musicus musicologist who studies and understands music
Cantor practitioner who performs music; person specially trained to lead the music of the community
Liturgy collection of prayers, chants, readings, and ritual acts by which the theology of the church, or any organized religion, is practiced Chant
Rule of St.Benedict code of conduct to regulate daily life in a monastery, compiled in 530 CE by Benedict. Required vows of chastity; worked the land to feed bodies; prayed and chanted to save souls; not so much interested in helping others as in saving their souls.
Canonical hours (liturgical offices) set of eight periods of worship occurring throughout the day. During these times, monks and nuns ceased their work and came together for prayer, reading of scripture, and singing Vespers
Gregorian chant (plainsong) body of music sung at services of canonical hours and Mass. It is a vast body of monophonic religious music setting Latin texts and intended for use in the Roman Catholic Church.
Holy Roman Empire the re-started Roman Empire, under Charlemagne, in which he wished to recreate the old empire but as Christian empire rather than pagan Psalter
Psalm tone simple repeating patterns used for singing Psalms. Begins with intonation sung by cantor, continues with a recitation on a single pitch, then a short mediation (middle cadence formula), more recitation on a single pitch, then a short Termination formula
Hymn relatively short chant with a small number of phrases (often four), and a narrow vocal range. Like modern hymns, form is strophic
Magnificat biblical text of Mary’s response to the news that she would bear the Christ child
Proper of the Mass consists of chants whose texts change each day to suit the religious theme, or honor a particular saint on just that day
Ordinary of the Mass includes chants with unvarying texts, and can be sung almost every day of the year
Syllabic chant usually one note per syllable of text
Neumatic chant usually 3-5 notes per syllable of text
Melismatic chant many notes per syllable
John of St. Gall monk from St. Gall (John Cotton), wrote treatise De Musica where he set forth the 8 church modes in a system with numbers to which were added Greek names; are still in use today
Church modes 8 melodic patterns into which medieval theorist categorized chants of the church: Dorian, Hypodorian, Phyrgian, Hypophrygian, Lydian, Hypolydian, Mixolydian, Hypomixolydian
Authentic mode first mode within each pair (Dorian, Phyrgian, Lydian, and Mixolydian)
Plagal mode means “derived from,” a fourth below authentic counterpart (Hypodorian, Hypophrygian, Hypolydian, and Hypomixolydian)
Neume signs for single pitches as well as for groups
Guido of Arezzo Italian monk who was the leader in the creation of the musical staff and note names; wrote Micrologus
Solfege singing different pitches to syllables
Guidonian hand further innovation added to facilitate sight-singing with hexachords; system of using the left hand to inscribe mentally all the notes of the Guidonian scale
Trope addition of music or text, or both, to a pre-existing chant
Sequence addition of music with text to a pre-existing chant; did not precede a chant but followed it
Double verse structure each musical phrase is sung twice to accommodate a pair of verses
Dies irae most famous of all medieval sequences; means Day of Wrath; sequence for the Requiem Mass
Diabolus in musica the dissonant tritone (devil in music)
Liturgical drama religious play-with-music intended to be inserted into a liturgy, usually before Mass
Troubadour male poet-musicians who flourished in S. France; “trobar” means “to find”
Trobairitz women poet-musicians; “trobar” means “to find”
Trouvère name for the poet-musician in the North
Chanson a song of the north
Chansonnier book of songs
Eleanor of Aquitaine grandfather was a Duke and first recorded troubadour; she inherited the Duchy of Aquitaine and became queen of England after marrying man who became King Henry II
Bernart de Ventadorn troubadour at Chinon (ruled by Eleanor), fell in love with Eleanor and left when she broke his heart
Minnesinger German poet-musician writing love songs in the native tongue
Minnesang “song of love” in old high German
Musica enchiriadis Music Handbook that describes a type of polyphonic singing called organum
Organum (pl., organa) term that connotes polyphony; voices singing in harmony show a sound similar to organ
Parallel organum organum in which all voices move in lockstep, up or down, with the intervals between voices remaining the same
Vox principalis principal voice; pre-existing chant to be enhanced
Vox organalis organal voice; newly created line to be added to the chant
Oblique motion one voice repeating or sustaining a pitch while another moves away or toward it
Gothic architecture new, lighter manner of architecture that replaced older, heavy, Roman-dominated style
Nave western end and public part of the church
Choir area where most music was made in the east end of the church; included the high altar
Leoninus wrote a great book of polyphony called Magnus liber organi; educated in Paris; priest, poet, and canon (high-ranking official) of the cathedral of Notre Dame
Magnus liber organi great book of polyphony written by Leoninus
Organum purum pure organum; florid two-voice organum
Discant both voices move at roughly the same rate and are written in clearly defined rhythms
Clausula each separate section making use of discant style; section, phrase, or musical clause
Rhythmic modes simple patterns of repeating rhythms: one pattern for mode one, another for mode two, etc.
Substitute clausula one clausula written in discant style intended to replace another
Perotinus took rhythmic innovations of Leoninus and used them to create polyphonic works of unprecedented length, complexity, and grandeur
Duplum second voice
Triplum third voice
Quadruplum fourth voice
Close independent urban enclave situated next to almost every medieval cathedral
Peter Abelard nobleman turned cleric; fell in love with a woman which led to a huge scandal and an outpouring of poetry and music
Universitas unified collection of all the schools and colleges under a single administrative head
Latin Quarter lectures given in Latin as well as spoken by all students on the streets
Motet diminutive of the French mot meaning “word”; a discant clausula – self-contained section of organum in discant style involving just one or two words in the original chant
Hocket both a contrapuntal technique and a musical genre – sounds of 2 voices are staggered by the careful placement of rests, thereby creating a highly syncopated piece
Formes fixes fixed forms; secular songs and dances setting texts in medieval French
Ballade a song setting a poem with one to three stanzas, or strophes
Ballade style musical form is AAB
Cyclic Mass all movements of the Mass are linked together by a common musical theme
Contratenor bassus contratenor below the tenor
Contratenor altus contratenor above the tenor
Chant monophonic religious music sung in a house of worship
Created by: megshu