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Gastrointestinal Sy

gastrointestinal system

The gastrointestinal system (GI) is the AKA? digestive system
The GI System prepares food for use by cells through? 5 basic activities
The first basic activity is Ingestion which? involves taking food into the oral cavity.
The second basic activity is Peristalsis which is? wave like action of the GI system that pushes the food along digestive tract.
Borborygmos is? the gurgling sound made by the peristaltic movement AKA bowel sounds (BS)
The third basic activity is Digestion which? Is the breakdown of food by both chemical and mechanical processes.
The fourth basic activity is Absorption which is? movement of digested food into the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems for distribution to the body's cells.
The fifth basic activity is defecation which is? elimination from the body those substances that are indigestible and cannot be absorbed.
The journey of food through the GI system takes an average of ? 12 hours
The GI tract is AKA? alimentary canal.
The GI is a long continuous tube that runs from the? oral cavity to the anus.
The length of the GI tract is approximately? 30 feet
Digestion begins in the? oral cavity (mouth).
Mechanical digestion involves? mastication (chewing)
The tongue, labiae,and buccae keep the food? between the superior and the inferior dentes (teeth)
Between ages 6 months to 2 years there are? 20 temporary or deciduous teeth.
By age 13 there are? 32 permanent teeth
The 8 anterior (front( teeth are called? incisors.
The next 4 teeth are called? canine or cuspids
Canine (cuspids) are used to? tear food.
The next 8 teeth are called? premolars (bicuspids)
The next 12 teeth are called? molars (tricuspids).
The bicuspids are tricuspids are used to? grind food.
Each tooth is divided into 3 parts called? 1. the crown 2. the cervix (neck) 3. the root.
The crown is the portion above the? gingivae.
The crown is covered by the hardest substance in the body called? enamel.
The cervix (neck) of the tooth is the? connection between the crown and root.
The root is? embedded into the sockets located in the maxilla and mandible.
Chemical digestion occurs in the oral cavity because of the presence of? saliva.
Saliva contains an antibacterial enzyme called? lysozyme.
Saliva is primarily produced in 3 glands called the? 1. Parotid gland 2. Submandibular gland 3. Sublingual gland.
The hard palate forms the? anterior part of the roof of the oral cavity (mouth).
The soft palate forms the? posterior portion of the roof of the oral cavity (mouth).
Hanging from the posterior border of the soft palate is a cone shaped muscular structure called the? uvula.
The uvula prevents food from entering the? nasal cavity.
The tongue is a muscular structure and is covered on the superior surface with projections called? papillae.
The tongue is connected to the floor of the oral cavity by the? lingual frenulum.
The anterior 2/3 of the tongue is covered with? taste buds
The four tasted are? sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
The pharynx is the? throat.
The pharynx begins the process of? swallowing (deglutition).
The esophagus is the? 10 inch tube between the laryngopharynx and the stomach.
The proximal esophagus passes through the? mediastinum.
The mediastinum is the? space between the lungs.
The distal esophagus pierces the diaphragm through the? esophageal hiatus.
The sphincter that connects the esophagus to the stomach is called the? cardiac sphincter (lower esophagus sphincter).
The stomach is located in the? lower left quadrant.
The stomach is a bag of muscles designed to? churn, squash and squeeze food into a liquid.
The liquid food is called? chyme
Chemical digestion occurs in the stomach due to? 1.HCl stands for? hydrochloric acid 2. Pepsin.
Pepsin begins the digestion of? protein.
The stomach is protected from being dissolved by these enzymes due to a? mucus layer
In 2 to 6 hours the stomach empties all of its contents into the duodenum through the? pyloric sphincter.
The 1st section of the small intestine is the? duodenum
The 2nd section of the small intestine is the? jejunum.
The 3rd section of the small intestine is the? ileum.
80% of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the? small bowel (duodenum)
These nutrients include? 1.Simple sugars (glucose)
Another nutrient needed for absorption is? 2.Amino acids
Another nutrient needed for absorption is? 3.Fatty acids
Another nutrient needed for absorption is? 4. Water
Another nutrient needed for absorption is? 5.Vitamins
Another nutrient needed for absorption is? 6.Minerals.
The ileum empties into the large intestine (bowel) through the? ileocecal valve (sphincter)
The 1st section of the large intestine (large bowel, colon) is called the? cecum
A finger-like projection off the cecum is called the? (vermiform) appendix.
The appendix is located in the? Right lower quadrant (RLQ)
More specifically the appendix is located in the? right inguinal (iliac) region of the abdomen.
The 2nd section of the large intestine(bowel, colon) is called the? ascending colon.
The ascending colon turns left at the? hepatic flexure.
The 3rd section of the large intestine (bowel,colon) is called the? transverse colon.
The transverse colon curves beneath the lower end of the spleen at the? splenic flexure.
The fourth section of the large intestine (bowel,colon) is called the? descending colon.
The 5th section of the large intestine (bowel,colon) is called the? sigmoid colon.
The sixth section of the large intestine (bowel,colon) is called the? rectum.
Stool (feces) leaves the body through the? anus
The act of emptying the rectum is called? defecation (defecate) or bowel movement(BM).
The most important function of the large (bowel,colon) is to? absorb water.
Stool (feces) should be a? semisolid
Normal stool (feces) should be? brown and formed (baby ruth bar)
The pancreas is located? posterior to the stomach (retrogastric).
The pancreas secretes enzymes into the duodenum that will? aid in chemical digestion and neutralize HCl (hydrochloric acid).
Pancreatic enzymes include? 1. Amylase.
Another pancreatic enzyme is? 2. Tryspin
Another pancreatic enzyme is? 3.Chymotripsin.
These enzymes are carried from the pancreas to the duodenum through the? pancreatic duct.
The pancreas also secretes the hormones? insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.
Insulin will allow? glucose to enter the cells
Glucagon stimulates the liver to? release stored sugar (glycogen) into glucose.
Insulin and glucagon regulate and control? blood sugar (BS) levels.
Pancreatitis can be diagnosed by detecting high levels of? serum amylase.
The liver is located in the? Right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen.
The functions of the liver include. 1. production of heparin, prothrombin, and thrombin which are involved in the coagulation (clotting) mechanism.
Another function of the liver is? 2.Production of Kupffer's cells which destroy old erythrocytes (bilirubin) and leukocytes.
Another function of the liver is? 3.Detoxifies poisons such as ammonia, alcohol (ETOH) and medications.
Another function of the liver is? 4.Stores excess glucose as- glycogen.
Another function of the liver is? 5.Stores copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), and fat soluble vitamins A,D, E, + K.
Another function of the liver is? Produces bile.
Bile is stored and concentrated in the? gall bladder
The function of bile is to? emulsify (break up) fats.
The gall bladder is located? just inferior to the liver.
Bile is carried from the gall bladder to the duodenum via the? common bile duct.
LFT's stands for? liver function tests.
LFT's are used to detect? hepatic (liver disease
LFT's include? 1.Alkaline Phosphatse abbreviate? ALP or Alk. Phos.
Another LFT is? 2. ALT aka SGPT
Another LFT is? 3.AST aka SGOT
Another LFT is? LD aka LDH
another LFT is? Ammonia
another LFT is? Albumin (Alb.)
another LFT is? Bilirubin (ili) or neonatal bilirubin.
another LFT is? Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
another LFT is? Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).
9. HBsAg is a test to detect the? Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
10.Hepatitis B surface antibody? (Anti-HBs).
Anti-HBs is a test to detect? recovery or vaccination to the Hepatitis B virus?
11.Hepatitis C virus? (HCV)
A hepatic function panel (profile) consists of? 1.Albumin
another hepatic function panel (profile) is? 2.Bilirubin
another hepatic function panel (profile) is? ALP
Another hepatic function panel (profile) is? AST (SGOT).
another hepatic function panel (profile) is? ALT (SGPT)
Other tests of the GI system include? 1.UGI (upper gastrointestinal) a.k.a. barium swallow.
GI System test? 2.Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) a.k.a. barium enema (BaE,BE).
An UGI and lower GI are referred to as a? GI series.
EGD which stands for? esophagogastroduodenoscopy
GB (gall bladder) series or? GB ultrasound
Colonoscopy refers to? the process of viewing the colon (large intestine,bowel).
Sigmoidoscopy refers to the? process of viewing the sigmoid colon.
Created by: Penny S