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CELLULAR

Cellular - Basic

QUESTIONANSWER
CELL ? A Cell is a Sac of Gel-Like material within a Cell Membrane. A Microscopic unit that makes a living thing.
3 Main groups of living things ? Plants Animals & Fungi.
The Gel like Material is ? CYTOPLASM / PLASMA
CYTOPLASM / PLASMA is ? The FLUID contained within the Cell Membrane.
CELL MEMBRANE ? Outer case of the Cell.
CONTENTS of a CELL ? The OGANELLES.
OGANELLES ? (Little Organs) The cellular components inside the cell where the cellular process takes place.
ORGANELLES Function ? Act like Factories, each Organelle is responsible for prodeucing a certain product(s) that's used elsewhere in the cell or body.
Organelle - NUCLEUS ? Controls the Cell; houses the genetic material.
Organelle - MITOCHONDRION ? Cell "Powerhouse" Converts food nitrients, such as Glucose, to a fuel that the cells of the body can use.
Organelle - ENDOLASMIC RETICULUM ? Plays an important role in making Proteins & shuttling Cellular products; also involved in metabolising fats.
Organelle - GOLGI APPARATUS ? "Packages" Cellular products in sacs called VESICLES so that the products can cross the Cell Membrane to Exit the Cell.
Organelle - VACUOLES ? Spaces in the Cytoplasm that sometimes serve to carry Materials to the Cell membrane foe discharge to the outside of the Cell.
Organelle - LYSOSOMES ? Contain Digestive Enzymes that break down harmful Cell Products & Waste materials & then Force them out of the Cell.
How many Cells ? Several Trillion !
CELLULAR FUNCTION / RESPIRATION ? The process in which the Energy in food / Nutrients (measurable in Calories) is Converted to Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
ENERGY Converted to ? A Compound, ATP.
ATP ? Adenosine TriPhosphate. The fuel that every Cell in the body uses to provide the Energy for Cellular Reactions. (Anabolism & Catabolism).
METABOLISM ? Describes all the CHEMICAL reactions that are happening in the body
ANABOLIC Reaction ? Creating needed products
CATABOLIC Reaction ? Breaks down products
CELLULAR Respiration Involves ? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle & Oxidtive Phosphorylation
ATP is Created in the Presence of ? OXYGEN, Acuired through Breathing.
2 Process of RESPIRATION ? AEROBIC Respiration in the presence of Oxygen & ANAEROBIC Respiration without the presence of Oxygen.
GLYCOLYSIS ? The process that breaks down GLUCOSE.
GLYCOLYSIS occures in ? The CYTOPLASM (fluid portion) of every cell.
Product of GLYCOLYSIS ? PYRUVIC Acid. 2 Molecules are generated during Glycolysis.
PYRUVATE ? Pyruvic acid, product of Glycolysis.
PYRUVIC Acid moves from ? CYTOPLASM into a Cellular ORGANELLE, called the MITOCHONDRION.
CELLULAR FUNCTION / SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY ? The process in which the cell protects itself by chosing what it allows in & out of it's Membrane.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITIY / Fluid Mosiac Model ? Used to describe how Molecules are Transported across the Cell Membrane.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITIY / Fluid ? Mosaic ? Fluid describes the Membranes Flexibility. Mosaic the fact that the Membrane has large proteins embedded in it.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITIY / The 2 layers ? The 2 layers of a Cell Membraine are made up of LIPIDS (Fats). Together the 2 layers are known as the PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITIY / Outside of top & bottom Layer ? Has a water-loving (HYDROPHILIC) Heads.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITIY / Betwwen the Layers ? Are the Water-Fearing (HYDROPHOBIC) Tails.
CELLULAR FUNCTION / The CELL CYCLE ? The Cell goes through periods of growth & rest called the cell Cycle as it Reprodeuces. If Cells didn't Reprodeuce, the Organism they make up would eventualy die.
CELLULAR FUNCTION / GENES ? Each Cell's Nucleus holds a compleate set of your genes, which are dotted along strands of DNA contained in your Chromosomes.
CELLULAR FUNCTION / PROTEINS ? Nitrogen Organic Compounds.
PROTEIN CREATION ? To create a Protien part of the Genetic material must be read,matched & translated. These processes allow the Amino Acids that form a Protein to be Prodeuced. Cells are constantly forming different Proteins for various uses.
CELLULAR FUNCTION / AUTODIGESTION ? Old, worn-out Cell parts need to be removed from the cells, if they aren't, they can become sources of Toxins or severe energy drains.
AUTODIGESTION done by ? LYSOSMOS are the Cellular Organelles that do the dirty work.
AUTODIGESTION example ? When Organelles such as Mitochondria have become unable to generate enough energy within the cell, the LYSOSOMES release Enzymes that break down the Mitchchondria.
AUTODIGESTION is called because ? A substance in the Cell (the Lysosmal Enzymes) destroys another substance in the cell ( the old Mitchochondria) through a digestive action, (auto means self).
AUTODIGESTION, What happens to the old cells ? They are Recycled so that they can be used elsewhere in that cell or another cell. Any left over producs are Exreated from the cell.
CELLULAR FUNCTION / Cell Membrane Transport ? Substances produced in 1 cell may need to get to another cell.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, Example ? Hormones, Nutrients Oxygen etc.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, 3 Types ? DIFFUSION, OSMOSIS & FILTRATION.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, DIFFUSION ? Substances mobe from an area where they are highly Concentrated to an area where the Molecules are less concentrated. The Substances spread themselves across the Membrane to even out the areas of Concentration.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT , OSMOSIS ? Similar to Diffusion but involving Solvent/Water.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, OSMOSIS Occurs From ? An area of high Concentration to an are of low Concentration.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, OSMOSIS - Concentration ? concentration of Particles/solutes in the water/solvent. They are 3 types called ISOTONIC, HYPOTONIC & HYPERTONIC.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, ISOTONIC Solution ? Is one that has EQUAL cocncentrations of Solutes/Proteins & Solvent/Water.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, HYPOTONIC Solution ? Has a LOWER Concentration of Solutes/Particles & More Water/Solvent.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, HYPERTONIC Solution ? Has a HIGHER Concentration of Solutes/Proteins and LESS Water/Solvent.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, Water Balance ? The water balance Inside & Outside a Cell must be stabel in order for the Cell to function at a Normal level. Homeostasis helps to keep the water balance stable.
CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, FILTRATION ? This form of Passive transport occurs during Capillary exchange. Proteins etc are transported out of the cells into the Tissues.
HOMEOSTASIS ? The fine tuning that your body goes through automatically to maintain or restore balance amoung it;s systems. edit delete
HOMEOSTASIS maintained by ? HYPOTHALAMUS.
HOMEOSTASIS checks ? Amount of Glucose in blood, Blood pressure, body temperature & PH of
CILIA ? Tiny Tubular structures that project from the outside of a cell Membrane.
Purpose of CILIA ? To move substances over the surface of a cell.
Example of CILIA ? Cells in the nose, sinuses & throat secrete mucus to to trap debris, the Cillia act like brooms & move the particles to the throat so that the lungs remain clear.
FLAGELLA ? Microtublar structures attached to Cell Membranes allowing movement.
FLAGELLA Found in ? Sperm Cells.
What are the 2 types of Cell Division ? MEIOSIS & MITOSIS
MEIOSIS ? When Sperm & Eggs are produced in preparation for reproduction, Meiosis occurs in the Testies or Ovaries.
MITOSIS ? When Cells need to undergo repair or growth, Mitosis occurs in every "regular" (Somatic) Cell - Meaning non-sec cell - of the body.
During MITOSIS ? 1 cell divides into 2 cells. The cell that is about to divide is the MOTHER Cell, the 2 cells that are produced are DAUGHTER Cells.
Created by: Grendeloak on 2007-02-18



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