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pathology review1

pathology review

hyperplasia increase in size of tissue due to increase in number of component cells.
hypertrophy increase in size of tissue due to increase in size of individual cells.
metaplasia abnormality of cellular differentiation in which one type of mature cell is replaced by a different type of mature cell and the latter is not normal for the involved tissue.
hyaline degeneration group of several degenerative processes that affect various cells and tissues, resulting in the formation of rounded masses or relatively broad bands of substances that are homogeneous, translucent,and acidophilic.
gangrene clinical situation in which extensive tissue necrosis is complicated to a variable degree by secondary bacterial infection: dry gangrene,moist gangrene,gas gangrene.
organization injured area of repair is replaced by growing granulation tissue( highly vascularized CT composed of newly formed capillaries, proliferating fibroblasts,residual inflammatory cell).
R-S cell Reed sternberg cell are large transformed lymphocytes,regarded as characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.R-S cell frequently show mirror image form with pale staining acidophilic cytoplasm and 1 or 2 large nuclei showing marginal clumping of chromatin.
anaplasia malignant neoplasms composed of undifferentiated cells are said to be anaplastic.it implies loss of structural and functional differentiation of normal cells and usually means poor prognosis.anaplastic cells display marked pleomorphism.
linitis plastica diffuse fibrosis and thickening of the wall of the stomach, resulting in a rigid, inelastic organ. Cause include infiltrating undifferentiated carcinoma,syphilis and crohn's disease involving the stomach.Also called leather bottle stomach
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.any disorder that persistently obstructs bronchial airflow and share major symptom dyspnea. COPD mainly involve 2 related diseases: chronic bronchitis and emphysema
nephrotic syndrome collection of symptoms which occur because the glomeruli in the kidney become leaky and allow protein to leave the body in large amount
CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: dysplasia of the cervical epithelium, often premalignant, charaterized by various degree of hyperplasia, abnormal keratinization and presence of condylomata
psammoma body laminated calcific spherical structures found in certain benign and malignant tumor or with chronic inflammation
granuloma as distinctive variant of proliferative inflammatory response,granuloma is a nodular lesion composed of macrophages surrounded by a collar of lymphocytes,plasma cells and fibroblasts.there are 2 types:infective and foreign body granuloma
embolism occlusion/obstruction of a vessel by an abnormal mass(solid/liquid/gaseous)transported from a different site by circulation.origin and type of embolism include thrombi in left/right side of heart/veins system, air,nitrogen gas,fat, amniotic fluid embolism
ghon focus principal parenchymal lesion of primary pulmonary tuberculosis in children
teratoma type of germ cell tumor composed of multiple tissues including those not found in the organ in which it arises.it occur mostly in ovaries( as benign form) and in testis (as malignant form) and uncommonly, in other sites especially midline of the body
the nephritic syndrome clinical symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis, particularly hematuria, hypertension and renal failure
early lung cancer pathologically, the diameter of the tumor is below 2cm and the tumor is confined to the wall of bronchus to surrounding tissues. no lymph node metastasis present.
pulmonary carnification complication of acute air space pneumonia, in which if fibrinous exudates are not completely dissolved they are organised by granulation called pulmonary carnification
carcinoid small, yellow tumor derived from argentaffin cells in the GI mucosa that secrete serotonin and spread slowly locally but metastasize widely.
atheroma accumulation and swelling in artery wall made up mostly of Ma cells or debris that contain lipids,Ca and variable amount of fibrous CT.it occurs in atherosclerosis with is one of the 3 subtypes of arteriosclerosis.it obstruct blood flow and weaken media
paraneoplastic syndrome disease/symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors excreted by tumor cells or by immune response against the tumor.
epithelioid cell a non epithelial cell, especially one derived from a macrophage, having characteristics resembling those of an epithelial cel, often found in granulomas associated with tuberculosis
microglial nodule aggregations at sites of tissue injury of elongated microglia which are bone marrow derived cells that function as phagocytes of the CNS or found congregating around portions of dying neurons, termed neuronophagia.
gray hepatization second stage of hepatization in lobar pneumonia in which RBC disintegrate and the fibrinosuppurative exudate persists within the alveoli and begin to degenerate prior to breaking down(yellowish gray color). the lung is dry, gray and firm.
aschoff body inflammatory lesion of rheumatic fever found around blood vessels in myocardium.it contains a central focus of fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by a chronic mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and occasional large macrophages.
dysplasia abnormality of both differentiation and maturation.it is a premalignant lesion.dysplastic cells exhibit various abnormal morphologic features:increased Nu/C ratio,increased mitotic figures,pleomorphism...
caseous necrosis form of cell death in which tissue maintains cheese like appearance( amorphous granular debris composed of fragmented,coagulatedcells with a granulomatous reaction); occurs commonly in infectious granulomas as in tuberculosis.
atrophy decrease in size of tissue or organ, resulting from a decrease either in size of individual cells or number of cells composing the tissue.
Created by: dristy