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LOM ch 18

Endocrine System

adenectomy removal of a gland
adenohypophysis anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
adrenal cortex outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
adrenalectomy Removal of an adreanal gland
adrenaline increases heart rate and blood pressure
adrenal medulla Inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH) stimulates the adrenal cortex
adrenocorticotropin stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones
adrenopathy Disease of adrenal glands
aldosterone increases salt reabsorption
androgen hormone producing or stimulating male characteristics
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases reabsorption of water by the kidney
calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels
catecholamines Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla
corticosteroids Any of the hormones produced
cortisol increases blood sugar. It is secreted in times of stress and has an anti-inflammatory effect
electrolyte Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells; potassium, sodium, and calcium are electolytes
endocrinologist Specialist in diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders
epinephrine increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways. It is part of the body's "fight or flight" reaction
estradiol Estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries
estrogen Female hormone secreted by the overies and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex
estrogenic Pertining to having properties simular to estrogen
euthyroid Normal thyroid function
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the overies and sperm production by the testes
glucagon increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen (starch) to glucose
glucocorticoid Steroid that regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism.
glycemic Pertains to sugar in the blood
glycogen An animal starch, produced from sugar by he liver
glycosuria Suger in the urine
gonadotropin Hormone that acts on the gonads (overies and testes)
growth hormone stimulates growth of bones and soft tissue
homeostasis State of equilibrium (constancy) of the body's internal environment
hormonal Pertaining to hormones
hormone Substance that travels tthrough the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland
hypercalcemia Increased calcium in the blood
hypercalciuria Increased calcium in the urine
hyperglycemia Blood condition of increased sugar
hypocalcalcemia Decreased calcium in the blood
hypoglycemia low levels of sugar in the blood
hypogonadism Condition of decreased function of the gonads, with decreased growth growth and sexual development
hypoinsulinism low level of insulin
hypokalemia low level of potassium in the blood
hyponatremia Blood condition of deficiency of sodium
hypophysectomy Removal of the pituitary gland
hypophysis pituitary gland
hypopituitarism Condition resulting from decreased secretion by the pituitary gland (TSH)
hypothalamus Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland.
insulin Insulin helps glucose to pass into cells, and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen
luteinizing hormone stimulates ovualation in females and testosterone secretion in males
mineralocorticoid Steroid hormone to regulate mineral salts (electroltes) and water balance in the body
neurohypophysis posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
norepinephrine increases heart rate and blood pressure, nor- in chemistry means a parent compound from which another is derived
oxytocin Hormone from the neurohypophysis that stimulates childbirth
pancreas Located behind the stomach. Islet cells secrete hormones from the pancreas. Also secretes enzymes via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion
pancreatectomy Removal of the pancreas
parathormone secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium
parathyroidectomy Removal of the parathyroid glands
parathyroid glands Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland
pineal gland secretes melatonin which ades in sleep and affects mood
pituitary gland lacated at the base of the brain in the sella turcica weighs only 1/16 of an ounce and is a half inch across
polydipsia Condition of excessive thirst
progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy
prolactin promotes milk secretion
receptor cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited
sella turcica Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland
somatotropin growth hormone
steroid an organic compound with a ring structure; bile acids, vitamin d, and certain hormones
sympathomimetic pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system
target tissue Cells of an organ that are affected or simulated by specific hormones
testosterone male hormone secreted by the testes
tetraiodothyronine, Thyroxine (T4) Thyroid gland hormone containg 4 atoms of iodine; increases metabolism
thyroid gland Locatesd on the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine
thyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyrotropin; (TSH) thyroid stimulating hormone that acts on the thyroid gland to promote its functioning
triiodothyronine (T3) increases metabolism in cells contains 3 atoms of iodine
vasopressin antidiuretic hormone
acromegaly Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary aftr puberty; leading to enlargement of extremities
Addison disease Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
adreanal virilism Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens
cretinism extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leads to a lack of normal physical and mental growth
Cushing syndrome group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex
diabetes insipidus Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone
diabetes mellitus Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugur, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
dwarfism Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone
exophthalmometry measurement of eyeball protrusion (as in graves disease) with an exophthalmometer
exophthalmos protrusion of the eyeballs
fasting plasma glucose Also known as fasting blood sugar test. Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours
gastroparesis loss of gastric motality
gigantism Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissue
glucose tolerance test is used to diagnose pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
graves disease most common form of hyperthyroidism; resulting from an autoimmune process
hirsutism excessive hair on the face and body
hyperinsulinism Exsess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
hyperparathyroidism excessive production of parathormone
hyperthyroidism Overactivity of the thyroid gland
ketoacidosis fats are improperly burned, leading to an accumulation of ketones and acids in the body
myxedema advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood
panhypopituitarism Condition of deficient secretion of all hormones from the pituitary gland
pheochromocytoma Benign tumor of the adrenal medulla
tetany constant muscle contraction
thyroid carcinoma cancer of the thyroid gland
thyroid function tests measurement of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream
thyroid scan Scanner detects radioactivity and visulizes the thyroid gland after intravenous administration of a radioactive compound
thyrotoxicosis condition of increasedasecretion from the throid gland with symptoms such as sweating, rapid pulse, tremors, and exophthalmos
Created by: mscardenas