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Operating Systems

Chapter 3

QuestionAnswer
Older-style file name format in which the name of the file can be up to eight characters long, followed by a period and an extension of three characters. 8.3 filenames
The logical portion of a hard disk drive that is currently being used to store data. In a PC system, usually the partition that contains the bootable operating system. active partition
In the Macintosh file system, a feature that presents an icon that represents an executable file. Equivalent to the UNIX/ Linux link and the Windows shortcut. alias
In the Macintosh file system, a division of hard disk data. Equivalent to the Windows disk cluster. Each Macintosh volume is divided into 216 (65,535) individual units. allocation block
On a hard disk drive, areas of the surface that cannot be used to safely store data. ______ are usually identified by the format command or one of the hard drive utilities, such as chkdsk. bad clusters
A way of structuring a file system that enables fast file access through creating an internal file system tree structure off of the root that is more horizontally oriented than vertically oriented. balanced-tree (b-tree)
In the Macintosh file system, a seven-bit file format used to transmit data across network links that do not support native Macintosh file formats. BinHex
A hard disk configuration scheme in which the disk is divided into logical blocks, which in turn are mapped to sectors, heads, and tracks. Whenever the operating system needs to allocate some disk space, it allocates it based on a block block allocation
In the UNIX/Linux file system, a device that is divided or configured into logical blocks. block device
The UNIX/Linux and Mac OS X equivalent of the DOS/Windows Master Boot Record (MBR), the area of the hard disk that stores partition information for the disk. boot block
In the Macintosh file system, a list of all files on a given volume. Similar to a directory in the Windows file system. catalog b-tree
A 32-bit file system used on CD-ROMs. CD-ROM File System (CDFS)
In Windows-based file systems, a logical block of information on a disk containing one or more sectors. Also called an allocation unit. cluster
Hidden file characteristic in the Macintosh file system that indicates the program (software application) that created the file creator code
Tracks that line up from top to bottom on the platters in a hard disk drive (like a stack of disk tracks). cylinder
That portion of a file in the Macintosh file system that stores the variable data associated with the file. ______ information might include word-processing data, spreadsheet information, and so on. data fork
A tool that rearranges data on a disk in a continuous fashion, ridding the disk of scattered open clusters. defragmenter
Also called a folder in many file systems, an organizational structure that contains files and may additionally contain subdirectories (or folders) under it. directory
The UNIX/Linux equivalent of a partition table in MS-DOS or Windows-based systems. The _______ is a table containing information about each partition on a disk, such as the type of partition, size, and location. disk label
Allocating a specific amount of disk space to a user or application with the ability to ensure that the user or application cannot use more disk space than is specified in the allocation. disk quota
A technique new to NTFS 5 that ensures that shortcuts, such as those on the desktop, are not lost when files are moved to another volume. Distributed Link Tracking
The file system designed for Linux that is installed, by default, in Linux operating systems. ext enables the use of the full range of built-in Linux commands, file manipulation, and security extended file system (ext or ext fs)
In MS-DOS and Windows-based systems, that part of a filename that typically identifies the type of file associated with the name. File ______ traditionally are three characters long and include standard notations such as .sys, .exe, .bat, extensions
Keeps track of the location of the file fragments or extents in the Mac OS HFS file system. extents b-tree
A file management system that defines the way data is stored on a disk drive. The _____ stores information about file size and physical location on the disk. file allocation table (FAT)
File characteristics stored with the filename in the disk directory, which specify certain storage and operational parameters associated with the file. Attributes are noted by the value of specific data bits associated with the filename. file attributes
A design for storing and managing files on a disk drive. _______ are associated with operating systems such as UNIX/Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows. file system
In Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 and UNIX/Linux, a file management technique that permits multiple directory entries to point to the same physical file. hard link
An early Apple Macintosh file system storage method that uses a hierarchical directory structure. Developed in 1986 to improve file support for large storage devices. Mac OS Extended (HFS+) file system was released in 199 Hierarchical Filing System (HFS)
A process that prepares a disk partition (or removable media) for a specific file system. high-level formatting
A procedure used by a file system that can detect a damaged disk area and then automatically copy information from that area to another disk area that is not damaged. hot fix
Short for “information node.” In UNIX/Linux, a system for storing key information about files. Inode information includes: the inode number, the owner of the file, the file group, the file size, the file creation date, the date the file was last modified and read, the number of links to this inode, and information regarding the location of the bloc
The ability of a file system or software (such as database software) to track file changes so that if a system crashes unexpectedly, it is possible to reconstruct files or to roll back changes for minimum or no damage. journaling
Used in FAT file systems so that when a file is written to disk, each cluster containing that file’s data has a pointer to the location of the next cluster of data. linked list - . For example, the first cluster has a pointer to the second cluster’s location, the second cluster contains a pointer to the third cluster, and so on.
A software definition that divides a physical hard drive into multiple drives for file storage. logical drive
A name for a file, folder, or directory in a file system in which the name can be up to 255 characters in length. ________ in Windows-based, UNIX/Linux, and Mac OS systems are also POSIX compliant in that they honor uppercase a long filename (LFN)
A software process that marks tracks and sectors on a disk. A __________ is necessary before a disk can be partitioned and formatted. low-level format
A format for Mac OS files that joins type and creator codes so that Mac files can be transferred over the Internet, or used via online services. MacBinary
Macintosh Filing System (MFS) — The original ___________, introduced in 1984. _____ was limited to keeping track of 128 documents, applications, or folders. Macintosh Filing System (MFS)
Anareaofa hard disk in MS-DOS and Windows that stores partition information about that disk. _____ are not found on disks that do not support multiple partitions. Master Boot Record (MBR)
In Windows NT, 2000, XP, and Server 2003, a file management system similar to the FAT and directories used in MS-DOS and earlier versions of Windows. This table is located at the beginning of the partition. Master File Table (MFT)
— In the Macintosh file system, the 31-character filename length that Macintosh OS has supported from the beginning medium filenames
The 32-bit file storage system that is the native system in Windows NT, 2000, XP, and Server 2003. New Technology File System (NTFS)
The NetWare file system fully implemented in NetWare 6.0 and above that uses disk partitions, storage pools, and volumes. Novell Storage Services (NSS)
Table containing information about each partition on a disk, such as the type of partition, size, and location. Also, the ____________ provides information to the computer about how to access the disk. partition table
Blocking a group of tracks and sectors to be used by a particular file system, such as FAT or NTFS. _____ is a hard disk management technique that permits the installation of multiple file systems on a single disk. partitioning
Hard drive in a computer that you can physically touch and that can be divided into one or more logical drives. physical drive
A UNIX standard designed to ensure portability of applications among various versions of UNIX and other operating systems. Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)
In the UNIX/Linux file system, a device that has not been divided into logical blocks. raw device
In the Macintosh file system, that portion of a file that contains fixed information, such as a program’s icons, menu resources, and splash screens resource fork
The highest-level directory (or folder), with no directories above it in the structure of files and directories in a file system. root directory
A portion of a disk track. Disk tracks are divided into equal segments or ____. sector
In the Macintosh file system, a file search utility that can find filenames or text within files. Sherlock
Bits used as part of a directory entry to identify the type of filename contained in each entry. The ______ in use are Volume, Directory, System, Hidden, Read-only, and Archive. status bits
In the NetWare file system, a way to divide the use of a disk that can be a superset of disk partitions because one ______ can house one or more disk partitions. storage pool
In the UNIX/Linux file system, a special data block that contains information about the layout of blocks, sectors, and cylinder groups on the file system. This information is the key to finding anything on the file system, and it should never change. superblock
(1) A network device that connects LAN segments and forwards frames to the appropriate segment or segments. A switch works in promiscuous mode, similar to a bridge. (2) An operating system command option that changes the way certain commands function. switch
A special file in the UNIX/ Linux file system that permits a directory link to a file that is on a different partition. This is a special file, which has a flag set in the inode to identify it as a ________. symbolic link
Concentric rings that cover an entire disk like grooves on a phonograph record. Each ring is divided into sectors in which to store data. track
— In the Macintosh file system, embedded file information that denotes what applications were used to create the files. type code
A 16-bit character code that allows for the definition of up to 65,536 characters. Unicode
A removable disk formatting standard used for large-capacity CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs. Universal Disk Format (UDF)
A file system supported in most versions of UNIX/Linux that is a hierarchical (tree structure) file system which is expandable, supports large storage, provides excellent security, and is reliable. ufs employs information nodes (inodes). UNIX file system (ufs)
On a Mac-formatted disk, the sector after the boot blocks. The volume information block points to other important areas of information, such as the location of the system files and the catalog and extents trees. volume information block
A series of characters that identifies a disk drive or the file system it is using. volume label
Created by: MSalmons on 2007-02-13



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