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TCN Geronontology

Foundations of Gerontology TCN Module

Administration on Aging (AoA) Serves as advocate for older adults and plans & provides services to older Americans and their families
Federal Administrative Committee on Aging & Geriatrics Organization founded in 1951 to create nationwide awareness of the problems of older Americans & their need for services
American Society on Aging Political organization that consists primarily of people who organize & provide services to older people
National Council of Senior Citizens Organization for seniors that has been effective in representing them and their concerns to the federal gov't
National Council on Aging Organization primarily of people who organize & provide services to older people
National Conference on Aging 1st major gov't attempts to confront problems of older Americans in 1950
White House Conference Older Americans from all over joining to discuss major problems facing them
Older Americans Act Established statutory entitlements to ensure all persons over 60 would have programs tailored specifically to their needs
Agency under the Dept of Health, Education & Welfare Federal Administrative Committee on Aging & Geriatrics
Agency that helps older Americans and their families with special programs focusing on high risk individuals Administration on Aging (AoA)
Federal Administrative Committee on Aging & Geriatrics came out of 1st National Conference on Aging in 1950
Medicare & Medicaid came out of 1st White House Conference in 1965
A psychologist would be interested in all of the following processes on aging EXCEPT: a) problem-solving capabilities b) adaptions to world experiences c) performance of motor skills d) progression toward reserve capacity answer is D
Which system heavily impacts older adult's ability to respond to stimuli perceived by the senses Musculoskeletal
Older person highly motivated to spend time with friends and family as well as to be included in decision making of social groups Extrovert concerned with world around him as well as himself
Psychotherapy focuses on Warm interactions and positive transference of emotions to therapist
Older adult with positive outlook on life & high self-esteem Believes stereotypes of older adults apply to peers more than himself
Advocacy groups create societal problems by perpetuating negative stereotyping Emphasizing physical & financial problems associated with growing old
4 different sample populations supported hypothesis study considered reliable Same results yieded each time repeated
Pre-elderly 55 - 64
Young-old 65 - 74
Middle-old 75 - 84
Old-old 85 - 94
Elite-old 95 - 99
Frail-old 85+ who are at risk
Collagen Theory Decrease in amount & quality of readily soluble collagen in connective tissues
Stiffening of heart, lungs, blood vessels & muscles Collagen Theory
Declining Energy Theory Fixed amount of vitality that cannot be revitalized
Person at mercy of environmental & social factors Declining Energy Theory
Error/Mutation Theory Genetic mutations cause organ decline through self-perpetuating mutations
Cross linkage & incorrect transcription of RNA from DNA synthesis Error/Mutation Theory
Fixed Amount of Time Theory Certain amount of time to live - if you use it, you lose it
Free Radical Theory Accumulation of ineffective abnormal molecules impair functional capacity of organisms
Hayflick Limit Fixed number of bodily cells AKA Theory of Reserve Capacity
Wild animals live, procreate and die Hayflick Limit
Immune Theory Matures early childhood, peaks around 40 and declines thereafter
Organic Mental Discorders Dementias
Programmed Aging Theory Hayflick - genetic program/biological clock with life span pre-set
Theory of Reserve Capacity People who live to sexual maturity have cells that contain genetic reserve capacity
Unresolved Stress Theory Disease-causing stress interacts with aging to accelerate the degeneration
Wear & Tear Theory Functions become less effecient with prolonged use and numerous insults
Senescence Process of becoming old
Life Span Maximum length of life biologically possible without interference
Life Expectancy Average length of life figured from time of birth
Conquering disease & altering age-related biological process Increase in Life Expetancy
Leading causes of death end of 20th century Heart Disease Cancer Stroke COPD Pneumonia Diabetes
Leading chronic conditions age 65+ Arthritis Hypertension Hearing impairments Heart Disease Cataracts
Common social stressors in old age Loss of income Loss of role & status Loss of spouse Isolation through disability Loss of cognitive functioning
Self-Help Movement Initials health care needed Identify plan of action Decide actions to take Take responsibility for actions
Parsons "Sick Role" 1) Exempt from normal role responsibilities 2) Exempt from responsibility for self-care 3) Obliged to seek professional help 4) Obliged to want to, and try to, get well
For physical change in body to be considered part of senescence Must have negative effect on functioning of the body
Which racial group is expected to experience a substantial decline among its elderly: a) American Indians b) Whites c) Pacific Islanders d) Black Answer is b
All non-reproductive body cells subject to set number of cell divisions Reserve Capacity Theory
Holistic model Self-care, medical care and social support services
Activity Theory Continue middle-age lifestyle
Denying existence of old age as long as possible Activity Theory
Continuity Theory of Aging Predisposition toward certain actions in old age similar during other phases of life AKA Development Theory
Remaining engaged and or active, or not Continuity Theory of Aging
Disengagement Theory Some orderly means to transfer power from old to young
One of the earliest, most controversial and widely discussed theories of aging Disengagement Theory
Common practice of industry Disengagement Theory
Exchange Theory of Aging People will try to maximze rewards and minimize losses
Field Dependent Group oriented individuals
Havighurst Scale Categorizes life satisfaction: 1) zest vs apathy 2) resolution & fortitude 3) strong relationship desired & acheived goals 4) self-concept 5) mood-tone
Labeling Theory Individual derives self-concept from interaction with others in social surrounding
Meditative Intelligence Detachment to view problem-solving processes in larger context
Releases connection between thought & emotion to see problem for less-biased point of view Meditative Intelligence
Hearing loss Major impact on communication
Olfactory function Sharply declines after 65
Reaction Time Period that elapses between presentation of a stimulus and beginning of the response
Response Time Timed reaction to visual stimuli, abstract shapes and letters
Relative Deprivation Sense of being less fortunate than others
Symbolic Interaction Theory Ability of humans to acquire & use language making them distinctly different from other forms of life
Wisdom Excellent judgment and advice
Baltes 5 Elements 1) Factual knowledge 2) Procedural knowledge 3) Knowledge to place situations in appropriate context 4) knowledge considers situational relativism 5) knowledge considers uncertainty of life
4 stages of aging & intelligence 1) intellegence declines w/age (cross-sectional patterns) 2) consider different dimensions of intelligence (longitudinal) 3) various methods to see if adult intelligence could be improved 4) examining possibility higher mental abilities may increase
Friends People known & trusted
Acquaintances People known & liked
Biographical Life Course Pathways people take that are influenced & intersected by historical eras/life stages
Cultural Life Course Age-related progressions/sequences expected as mature & move through life
Formal Support Network Private & public agencies
Informal Support Network Family (personal care) and Friends (emotional support)
Spheres of Accomplishment Family, Career, Age Group
Statistical Life Course Studying and observing relative proportions of age cohort showing various patterns over time
Positively oriented Glad to give up background - working class
Negatively oriented Hate giving up work roles - middle class
Self-employed Have never & don't intend to give up
Actively re-engaged Find new & useful roles/activities
Interdependence Bring people together to satisfy needs better than being alone
Intimacy Exchange of affection, trust & confidence
Belonging Sense of being more than isolated individual
Direct Income Sources Earnings
Indirect Income Sources Assistance
Old Age Survivors Insurance Wife can choose to drop her benefits for deceased husband's
PBGC US corporation guarantees payment of private pensions
Retirement Phase Highly active - honeymoon period Inactive - rest & relaxation period Movement straight into retirement
Workforce Withdrawl 1) desire to retire 2) employment problems 3) disability
Median income peaks 45 - 54
Which of the following is not a factor to motivate people to work: a) desire for wages & benefits b) social status c) need to excel d) expend energy meaningful way Anser is c
Real Estate Investment Properties Elder Exploitation
Pre Paid Funeral Arrangements Elder Exploitation
Easy target for Exploitation Looking for inexpensive/quick way to increase income/wealth
Negative Age Discrimination Unjust treatment due to chronological age or appearance of being old
Subtle Age Discrimination Being left out of group interactions/social planning
Direct Age Discrimination Being denied ability to participate in events/groups because of age
Townsend Plan Gov't payment each month to be spent within 30 days of receipt and they retire
Medicare Part A Hospitalization covered through payroll tax deductions
Medicare Part B Physician and Outpatient expenses as supplement w/ monthly premiums deducted from SS
3 needs Medicare does not cover Adaptive devices, Long-term care, Prescription drugs
Long-term institutional care covered Medicaid once assets no longer available
Older adults vote Depending on which party supports their vested interests
Led to formation of the Townsend Plan Shift from agricultural economy to industrial economy
Middle-aged adults with family & work responsibilities making it difficult to care for elderly family members Advocacy group to aid older adults in acquision of money through political process
Took on AMA against disengagement Gray Panthers
Paved way for creation of the Administration on Aging Older Americans Act of 1965
Active Euthanasia Giving or allowing patient to give a lethal dose
Active Suicide Results in death
Adaptive Denial Individual acknowledges death and its implications and focuses on what remains rather than what is being lost
Anticipatory Grief Grieving while terminally ill still alive
Brittle Denial Person represses fact they are dying and fails to assimilate implications of impending death
Dying Trajectory Rate of decline in functional ability that will ulitimately result in physical death
Emotional Bereavement Emotionally adapting to person's death which includes anger, anxiety, overwhelming sadness, depression and preoccupation with thoughts of the deceased
Euthanasia Deliberate shortening of person's life to relieve suffering
Hospice Physical entity that provides support to dying and caregivers (Respite Care)
Intellectual Bereavement Purification of the memory of the deceased where all negative characteristics are forgotten and only idealized memory remains
Passive Euthanasia Allowing person to die by deciding to do nothing
Passive Suicide Person makes decisions that will eventually result in death
Neglecting health, failing to take life-sustaining meds/treatments, engaging in dangerous activies, refusing to eat Passive Suicide
Physical Bereavement Physically adapting to person's death with symptoms of SOB, sighning, chest tightness, emptiness, loss of energy, lack of strength and nausea
Physical Death Absence of breathing, heartbeat, reflexes
Respite Care Temporary personal and nursing care to terminally ill people & their families
Secularization of Death Practice of distinguishing death and pretending it doesn't exist AKA: bureacratization of death
Voluntary Euthanasia Patient requests to be taken off all life-supporting systems
Estimation of time frame terminally ill individual has Dying Trajectory
Unreceptivity and unresponsiveness, lack of movements or breathing, lack of reflexes, flat EEG Physical Death - Harvard
Social Death People no longer treated as individuals but as unthinking and unfeeling objects
Kubler-Ross's 5 stages of dying Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
Bereavement Process of adapting to a person's death
Protest Grief Denial, disbelief, anger accompanied by numbness, weeping bodily complaints
Despair Grief Disorgainization, restlessness, searching
Detachment Grief Begin pulling back and survivor begins to reorganize reality of loss and direct energies to other areas of concern
Adjustment Grief Final stage where grieving person can talk about deceased without severe emotional upset
Death as great leveler Everyone eventually dies regardless of class, race, etc
Death as great validator Confirms status of distinction individual carried while alive
Death as radical transformer Belief in being reuinited with deceased and changing life or anticipating death
Death as ultimate solution Seen as resolution to prolonged crisis
Women See death as merciful
Men See death as antagonist mind-set
Young See death as far in future demanding little if any attention
Middle Aged Becoming more aware of death with biological changes but don't have time to resolve fears of dying
Old Come to accept the inevitable & show less anxiety
Dying without pain/suffering Euthanasia - Old term
Curosity, hope, apathy and relief Also part of the stages of dying
Decreasing physical & emotion burdens of patient and family Goal of hospice
Helping patient maintain dignity during dying process Goal of hospice
Minimizing trauma of death for remaining family members Goal of hospice
Bereaved Being deprived of close relation or friend through death
Funeral Social event allowing community to openly show respect for the deceased & support for the survivors
Created by: flanurse