|Mesoderm gives rise to muscle, bone and blood. ||False|
|Columnar cells lining the small intestine show a brush border of microvilli in the apical surface. ||True|
|Nonkeratinized cells exfoliate from the surface of the skin. ||True|
|In an epithelium, there is almost no extracellular matrix. ||True|
|5. The clear gel that usually surrounds cells is called interstitial fluid. ||False|
|6. Fibrocartilage is found in intervertebral discs. ||True|
|7. Blood consists of cells and a ground substance made of formed elements. ||True|
|8. Plasma cells produce the ground substance that forms the matrix of connective tissues. ||False|
|9. Excitable cells respond to outside stimuli by means of changes in plasma membrane shape. ||False|
|10. Smooth and cardiac muscle are under involuntary control. ||True|
|11. Dendrites in a neuron send outgoing signals to other cells. ||False|
|12. Desmosomes are more effective than tight junctions in preventing substances from passing between cells. ||False|
|13. The duct of an endocrine gland leads into the bloodstream rather than onto an epithelial surface. ||True|
|14. The secretory product of a gland is produced by its parenchyma, not its stroma. ||True|
|15. Scar tissue helps to hold an organ together but does not restore normal function of the damaged tissue. ||True|
|16. The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except
|17. The _______________ gives rise to the _______________.
A. mesoderm; digestive glands
B. endoderm; muscular system and skeletal system
C. ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis
D. endoderm; mesoderm
E. mesoderm; endoderm
||C. ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis|
|18. The clear gel inside a cell is called
B. ground substance.
C. interstitial fluid.
E. tissue fluid.
|19. A thin, stained slice of tissue mounted on a microscope is called a
B. histological section.
||B. histological section|
|21. _______________ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs.
A. Interstitial tissue
B. Muscle tissue
C. Adipose tissue
D. Epithelial tissue
E. Nervous tissue
|22. An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________
A. stratified squamous.
B. stratified cuboidal.
C. simple cuboidal.
D. simple columnar.
E. pseudostratified columnar.
||D. simple columnar|
|23. The basement membrane is found between
A. epithelium and connective tissue.
B. epithelium and extracellular material.
C. epithelium and intracellular material.
||A. epithelium and connective tissue|
|24. ______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.
A. Simple squamous
B. Simple cuboidal
C. Simple columnar
||A. Simple squamous|
|25. Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion.
A. simple columnar epithelium
B. stratified columnar epithelium
C. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
D. simple cuboidal epithelium
||D. simple cuboidal epithelium |
|26. _ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas _ epithelium is rare.
A. Simple columnar; stratified columnar
B. Stratified squamous; stratified columnar
||B. stratified squamouse; stratified columnar|
|27. _____________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes.
A. Basement membrane
|28. A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________.
A. pseudostratified; nasal cavity
B. simple cuboidal; esophagus
C. simple columnar; small intestine
D. stratified squamous; anal canal
||C. Simple columnar; small intestines|
|29. All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia.
A. pseudostratified columnar
B. simple columnar
C. stratified columnar
D. stratified cuboidal
E. stratified squamous
||A. pseudostratified columnar |
|30. __________________ epithelium found in the bladder resembles ______________ epithelium, but the apical cells are rounded, not flattened.
A. Transitional; stratified squamous
B. Stratified squamous; pseudostratified
||A. transitional; stratified squamous|
|31. _______________ epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the ________________.
A. Transitional; tongue
B. Keratinized; tongue
C. Nonkeratinized; skin
D. Keratinized; skin
E. Nonkeratinized; vagi ||E. Nonkeratinized; vagina|
|32. __epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas __________________ epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion.
A. Simple columnar; transitional
B. Simple squamous; stratified squamous
||B. simple squamous; stratified squamous|
|33. These features are common to all connective tissues except
A. most cells are not in direct contact with each other.
B. interstitial fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with a light microscope.
||B. interstitial fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with a light microscope|
|34. __________________ tissue is highly vascular, whereas _______________ is not.
A. Epithelial; cartilage
B. Muscular; osseous tissue
C. Dense regular connective; dense irregular connective tissue
D. Areolar; cartilage
E. Nervous; osseous tissue
||D. Areolar; Cartilage |
|35. These are features that fibrous connective tissues have in common except
A. very conspicuous fibers.
B. the presence of fibroblasts.
C. the presence of collagen.
D. ground substance with a gelatinous to rubbery consistency.
E. a calcified matrix ||E. Calcified Matrix|
|36. The shape of a person's external ear is given by
A. dense regular connective tissue.
B. dense irregular connective tissue.
C. elastic cartilage.
||C. Elastic cartilage|
|37. These are all types of fibrous connective tissues except
A. reticular tissue.
B. hyaline cartilage.
C. dense regular connective tissue.
D. dense irregular connective tissue.
E. areolar tissue.
||B. hyaline cartilage|
|38. New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and others are hydrolyzed and released into circulation mostly from cells in
B. fibrous connective tissue.
C. adipose tissue.
D. reticular tissue.
E. transitional tissue.
||C. Adipose Tissue|
|39. _ secrete the cartilage rubbery matrix, whereas _ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue.
B. Mast cells; fibroblasts
C. Osteocytes; chondroblasts
D. Chondroblasts; fibroblasts
|40. Marfan syndrome is a hereditary defect in elastin fibers. People with this syndrome have
A. hyperextensible joints.
B. a small cranium.
C. elastic bones.
D. stronger bones.
E. viscous blood.
||A. hyperextensible joints|
|41. All these substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance except
A. glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).
C. chondroitin sulfate.
D. hyaluronic acid.
||D. hyaluronic acid|
|42. Collagenous fibers are very abundant in
A. blood and hyaline cartilage.
B. blood, adipose tissue, and osseous tissue.
C. ligaments, bones, and the most superficial portion of the skin.
D. tendons, ligament and the deeper portion of the skin.
||D.tendons, ligament and the deeper portion of the skin. |
|43. Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both
A. dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues.
B. plasma and formed elements.
C. elastic cartilage and hyaline cartilage.
D. spongy bone and compact (dense) bone. ||A. dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues|
|44. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) help give the ground substance some of its qualities such as
A. helping to transfer charges in the nervous system.
B. holding water and maintaining electrolyte balance.
C. giving bone its brittle, inorganic structure.
||B. holding water and maintaining electrolyte balance. |
|45. _ is found in the heart, and one of its functions is to _.
C. Reticular tissue; provide support to the heart
D. Simple cuboidal epithelium; line the heart chambers
E. Blood; transport nutrients to the tissues
||E.Blood; transport nutrients to the tissue|
|46. __________________ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes.
B. Areolar tissue
C. Osseous tissue
D. Dense irregular connective tissue
E. Adipose tissue
||B. Areolar tissue|
|47. _tissues respond quickly to outside stimuli by means of changes in membrane potential, thus they are called _tissues.
A. Muscular and nervous; excitable
B. Connective and muscular; responsive
C. Adipose and areolar; complex
||A. Muscular and nervous; excitable|
|48. Nervous tissue consists predominantly of two cell types, neurons and
|Astronauts in zero gravity are able to move food through their digestive tracts because
||A. smooth muscle produces waves of contractions that propel material through the digestive tract.|
|50. Skeletal muscle is described as
A. striated and voluntary.
B. striated and involuntary.
C. nonstriated and voluntary.
D. nonstriated and involuntary.
E. fibrous and contracting.
||A. striated and voluntary|
|51. A connective tissue fiber refers to a(n) __________________, a nerve fiber refers to a(n) _, and a muscle fiber refers to a(n) __.
D. complex of macromolecules; entire cell; part of a cell
E. complex of macromolecules; part of a cell; entire cell
||E. complex of macromolecules, part of a cell, entire cell|
|52. In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them.
A. plasma membrane
C. tight junctions
D. gap (communicating) junctions
E. ground substance
|53. __________________ secrete __________________ into __________________.
A. Goblet cells; mucus; the blood
B. Endocrine glands; hormones; ducts
C. Exocrine glands; hormones; ducts
D. Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood ||D. endocrien glands; hormones; ducts.|
|54. __________________ glands secrete mucin, which combines with water and form a thick and sticky product, whereas __________________ glands produce a relatively watery fluid.
A. Mucous; serous
B. Merocrine; holocrine
C. Apocrine; mixed
||A. Mucous; serous. |
|55. _ glands have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas _ glands secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products.
B. Mucous; serous
C. Cytogenic; apocrine
D. Mucous; cutaneous
E. Merocrine; holocrine
||E. merocrine; holocrine|
|56. __________________ glands have branched ducts and secretory cells that form sacs at one end of the ducts.
B. Simple acinar
C. Simple coiled tubular
D. Compound acinar
E. Compound tubuloacinar
||D. compound acinar|
|57. The membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts consists of
A. simple squamous epithelium and dense irregular connective tissue.
B. areolar and dense irregular connective tissue.
C. epithelium and lamina propria.
||C. epithelium and lamina propria|
|58. This membrane lines passageways that open to the exterior environment.
A. lamina propria
C. synovial membrane
D. serous membrane (serosa)
E. mucous membrane (mucosa)
||E. mucous membrane|
|59. After six months of lifting weights at the gym you notice that some of your muscles have increased in size. This increase in size is due to _______ of muscle cells.
|60. This primary germ layer is the middle layer, called _, and gives rise to a gelatinous material called _, which gives rise to different types of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, and blood.
|61.Most biologists see embryonic stem cells as a possible treatment for diseases that result from the loss of functional cells. This possibility is based on the fact that ES cells are _stem cells.
D. totipot ||D. totipotent|
|The pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the bronchi in smokers may transform into stratified squamous epithelium. This exemplifies
|63. Macrophages __________________ in the healing of a skin wound.
A. release histamine to increase blood flow to the area
B. produce and secrete collagenous fibers
C. phagocytize and digest tissue debris
||C. phagocytize and digest tissue debris|
|64. It is normal for breasts to shrink after lactation ceases. This is a consequence of __________________ in human breast cells.
||C. atrophy |
|65. The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue is called