|The skin carries out the first step in the synthesis of vitamin D. ||True|
|Living keratinocytes exfoliate from the epidermis as tiny specks called dander. ||False|
|The deeper of the two layers of the skin is the hypodermis. ||False|
|The youngest keratinocytes are found in the stratum basale. ||True|
|Melanin, hemoglobin, and carotene give color to the skin. ||True|
|Albinism is the genetic lack of melanin that results in a milky white coloration of the skin ||True|
|Embarrassment can be perceived by an abnormal coloration of the skin called cyanosis. ||False|
|Freckles are elevated patches with an abnormal coloration of the skin ||False|
|Straight hair is round, wavy hair is oval, and curly hair is relatively flat. ||True|
| Hair and nails are composed of collagen. ||False|
|Merocrine sweat glands are associated with hair follicles in the pubic and anal regions, axilla, areola, and beard. ||False|
|Pattern baldness is relatively rare in women because women have lower testosterone levels than men. ||True|
|The acidity of sweat contributes to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth in the skin. ||True|
|Debridement is not necessary to infection control ||False|
|The three forms of skin cancer are defined by the types of cells in which they originate. ||True|
|16. The skin does not include
A. the epidermis.
B. the papillary layer.
C. the hypodermis.
D. the stratum basale.
E. the dermis.
||C. The hypodermis|
|17. These are all types of cells found in the epidermis except
C. stem cells.
E. tactile (Merkel) cells.
|18. Skin covering the __________ has sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous (oil) glands.
|19. Most of the skin is ___________ mm thick.
A. 0.01 to 0.02
B. 0.1 to 0.2
C. 1 to 2
D. 10 to 20
E. 100 to 200
||B. .1 to .2|
|26. This layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead cells.
A. stratum basale
B. stratum spinosum
C. stratum granulosum
D. stratum lucidum
E. stratum corneum
||E. stratum corneum|
|27. Which of the following are associated with the sense of touch?
D. dendritic (Langerhans) cells
E. tactile (Merkel) cells
||E. Merkel cells|
|28. The fastest rate of mitosis happens in the
A. stratum basale.
B. stratum spinosum.
C. stratum granulosum.
D. stratum lucidum.
E. stratum corneum.
||A. stratum basale. |
|29. These cells stand guard against toxins, microbes and other pathogens.
D. dendritic (Langerhans) cells
E. tactile (Merkel) cells
||D. dendritic (Langerhans) cells|
|30. Fingerprints left on things we touch are associated with
A. dermal papillae.
B. epidermal ridges.
C. stratum basale.
D. subcutaneous tissue.
E. subcutaneous fat.
||A. dermal papillae |
|31. Calluses or corns are the result of accelerated multiplication of
D. tactile cells.
E. red blood cells.
||B. keratinocytes |
|32. The ___ is absent from most epidermis.
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum spinosum
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum lucidum
E. Stratum corneum
||D. Stratum luidum |
|33. Leather is mostly made of the __________ layer of the dermis, which is very tough due to the high concentration of ____________ fibers.
A. areolar; collagen
B. areolar; keratin
C. reticular; collagen
D. reticular; keratin
E. papillary; keratin
||C. reticular; collagen |
|34. Hypodermis is usually has an abundance of in this tissue.
A. epithelial tissue
B. muscular tissue
C. nervous tissue
D. adipose tissue
E. keratinized tissue
||D. adipose tissue|
|35. The skin discoloration most likely to suggest physical abuse is
|36. The reddish color of the skin of the lips is primarily due to this pigment.
|37. This skin color is most likely to result from anemia.
|38. Bilirubin causes a skin discoloration called
|39. Ethnic differences in skin color are primarily caused by differences in
A. UV radiation exposure.
B. quantity of hemoglobin carried in the blood.
C. quantity of melanin produced.
D. number of melanocytes.
E. number of keratinocytes.
||c. quantity of melanin produced. |
|40. A ___ is an elevated patch of melanized skin.
D. flexion line
E. friction ridge
|41. A pilus is
A. a hair.
B. a hair follicle.
C. a tiny muscle that moves a hair.
D. a sensory nerve fiber around the base of a hair.
E. a gland associated with a hair follicle.
||A. a hair|
|42. The hair present only prenatally is called ___________, most of which is replaced by ____________ by the time of birth.
A. pilus; terminal hair
B. lanugo; terminal hair
C. vellus; terminal hair
D. vellus; lanugo
E. lanugo; vellus
||E. lanugo; vellus|
|43. The _________ provides the hair with its sole source of nutrition.
D. dermal papilla
||D. dermal papilla|
|45. The contraction of the piloerector muscles (pilomotor muscle or arrector pili) in humans causes ||D. hair to stand up for no apparent reason. |
|46. A hair cycle consists of three developmental stages in the following order:
A. anagen, telogen, and catagen.
B. anagen, catagen, and telogen.
C. catagen, anagen, and telogen.
D. catagen, telogen, and anagen.
E. telogen, anagen, and catagen.
|47. Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a(an)
A. hair follicle.
E. dermal papilla.
||A. hair follicle|
|48. Excessive hairiness is called
|49. The narrow zone of dead skin overhanging the proximal end of a nail is called
A. eponychium (cuticle).
C. nail plate.
D. nail body.
E. nail root.
||A. eponychium (cuticle)|
|51. Variations in hair color arise from the relative amounts of
A. collagen and elastic filaments.
B. keratin and melanin.
C. carotene and hemoglobin.
D. carotene and collagen.
E. eumelanin and pheomelanin.
||E. eumelanin and pheomelanin|
|52. Mitosis in the __________ accounts for growth of the nail.
A. nail plate
B. nail fold
E. nail matrix
||E. nail matrix|
|53. The oil of your scalp is secreted by __________ glands associated with the hair follicles.
A. merocrine sweat
B. apocrine sweat
|54. Secretions from __________ glands contribute the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin.
D. apocrine sweat
E. merocrine sweat
||E. merocrine sweat |
|55. ____________ is/are formed partly from the secretions of glands in the external ear canal.
|57. The cutaneous glands concerned with cooling the body are
A. ceruminous glands.
B. sebaceous glands.
C. merocrine glands.
D. apocrine glands.
E. exothermic glands.
||c. merocrine glands|
|58. The ___ are a source of sex pheromones.
A. ceruminous glands
B. merocrine glands
C. mammary glands
D. sebaceous glands
E. apocrine glands
||E. aprocrine glands|
|59. Mammary glands are modified ___________ glands that develop within the female breast, whereas ____________ are present in both sexes.
A. merocrine; scent glands
B. apocrine; breasts
C. apocrine; scent glands
D. sebaceous; sudoriferous glands
||B. apocrine; breasts |
|60. Which two strata of the epidermis are most susceptible to cancer?
A. corneum and lucidum
B. basale and corneum
C. spinosum and basale
D. granulosum and spinosum
E. lucidum and granulosum
||C. spinosum and basale|
|61. The "ABCD rule" for recognizing early signs of malignant melanoma refers to the following characteristics of the lesion: ||A. asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and diameter|
|62. The least common but most deadly type of skin cancer is
A. basal cell carcinoma.
B. squamous cell carcinoma.
C. malignant melanoma.
D. skin lymphoma.
E. skin sarcoma.
||c. malignant melanoma|
|63. Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum __________, whereas malignant melanoma arises from ___________.
A. spinosum; keratinocytes
B. spinosum; melanocytes
C. basale; fibroblasts
D. basale; melanocytes
E. basale; keratinocyte ||D. basale; melanocytes|
|64. _____________ burns involve the epidermis, all of the dermis, and often some deeper tissue.
||C. third degree|
|65. The most immediate threat to the life of a patient with severe burns is
A. fluid loss.
C. heat loss.
||A. fluid loss|