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PSYCH 3230

Test #1

QuestionAnswer
According to the DSM-IV’s definition of mental disorder impairment in one or more areas of functioning (disability) May be present but is not a necessary condition for making a diagnosis
Individuals who have alcohol problems tend to come from families with other individuals who have alcohol problems. This would suggest Although there is an association, no cause-effect relationship can be concluded
Why would a researcher want to insure that every person in the larger group of study has an equal chance of being included in the sample? It increases the researcher’s ability to generalize findings for the larger group
What do the cases of Monique and Donald Best illustrate? Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances
The mayor of a city wants to know the number of new cases of a disorder over the past year… Incidence rate
Ideally, a sample is described as what? Representative
The fact that body piercings are commonplace today while they would once have been viewed as abnormal illustrates… The values of a society may change over time
Which mental health professional has a doctoral degree in psychology with both research and clinical skill specialization? Clinical Psychologist
A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using Experimental method
In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as Dependent variable
The Solarists are a cult whose members believe that they control the movements of the sun with special hand gestures… While some of this group’s members ay meet criteria for a DSM-IV diagnosis, the DSM-IV does not diagnose groups
Why is it important to have some understanding of what causes a psychological disorder The selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by assumptions of causality
Which of the following is an example of an analogue study? Rats prenatally exposed to alcohol are studied to further our understanding of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
All were likely to be part of moral treatment in the 1800’s except Antipsychotic medication
According to early beliefs, what would characterize an individual with an excess of blood? Happiness
In 1983, a large group of West Bank Palestinian girls showed signs of illness. Some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors play a key role. Mass madness
Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following except Taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders
Which is recognized as a major biomedical breakthrough in psychopathology because it established the link b/w mental and physical illnesses? The discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic insanity)
Both _______ and ______ studied the effects of consequences on the occurrence of behaviors Thorndike; Skinner
By the end of the nineteenth century Little was known about most mental illnesses
All are credited with emphasizing the link b/w brain pathology and mental illnesses except Dix
In the United States, an early treatment involved the belief that Patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly
Which is true? Genes play a role in most mental disorders
Schemas May be a source of psychological vulnerability
Why is it difficult to determine the nature of the relationship b/w divorce and psychological functioning of family members? Cause and effect cannot be determined as preexisting behavioral abnormalities in either the parents or the children may make divorce more likely
Suppose that, using linkage analysis, a researcher finds that family members with a high likelihood of developing depression also are very likely to be of below average height The gene for depression is probably located near the gene for height
Sammy was deprived of his mother and father’s love as a child. Operant conditioning theorists… A lack of social skills; dysfunctional self-schemas
Michael develops an intense phobia of snakes after stepping on one and being bitten during a hike. Being bitten by the snake is a … Proximal causal factor
Which is an example of family aggregation? Karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder
Why is it dangerous to make conclusions based on case studies? Conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed
Comorbidity means That a person has two or more disorders
What type of prevalence data only counts active cases of a disorder? Point prevalence
The physicians of Nancy School Demonstrated the power of suggestion
The emergence of humanism brought about changes in all except An increase in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior
What parental style is characterized by warmth, control, and communication? Authoritative
A ______ serves to guide our processing of information and may serve to distort memories Schema
Which typically involves the use of trained observers? Direct observation
People in the Middle Ages Believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways
Andrea and her parents are shy and quiet… An evocative effect of genotype on environment
What is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders? A group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except they eat normally
Which of the following is a sufficient element to determine abnormality? there is no sufficient element
Several studies have found that there is a correlation in children between amount of television watched and weight. What is one of the problems with using this finding to report that watching lots of TV makes children obese? It is just as possible that being obese causes children to watch more television.
To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, an not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use control group
Carl is asked to provide information about his drinking. Despite the fact that he ahs had several arrests for driving with intoxicated, Carl reports that he ahs no problems with drinking. This is an example of the problems with self-reported data
What is important to remember about the apparent high lifetime rate of mental disorders? Many people with disorders are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time.
What is wrong with describing someone as being “schizophrenic”? Labels should be applied to disorders, not people
A researcher who studies children who are home-schooled and compares them to children who attend school is using the ____ research method. correlational
According to the DSM, when is deviant behavior viewed as indicative of a mental disorder? when it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual
Which of the following mental health professionals has a medical degree? the psychiatrist
What do the cases of Monique and Donald best illustrate? Mental illness can have a significant impact on one’s life
Which of the following statements is true concerning classification systems for mental disorders? Classification systems meet the needs of medical insurance companies who need diagnoses in order to authorize payment of claims
In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as what? the dependent variable
Which of the following is included in the DSM? a means of identifying different mental disorders
If you visited an asylum in the 16th century in Europe you would likely find mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty
A behavioral psychologist would be most likely to use observational techniques
Both ____ and ____ studied the effects of consequences on the occurrence of behaviors. Thorndike; Skinner
Mesmer was a proponent of the power of animal magnetism
Which of the following approaches to treatment focuses almost exclusively on physical well-being ? mental hygiene
The doctrine of the four humors proved insight into the workings of the unconscious
By the end of the nineteenth century little was known about most mental illnesses
A catharsis is an emotional release
Dana’s mother suffers from serious depressive episodes. Dana is likely to be a risk for depression herself
Etiology is the causal pattern of a disorder
Why is it particularly useful to study identical twins who are raised in different environments? It is possible that high concordance rates between identical twins reared together is due to their being treated more similarly than non-identical twins.
According to the text, which of the following has not be identified as a potential protective factor? an outgoing personality
The process of assigning causes to things that happen is called attribution
One of Freud’s major contribution to current perspectives of mental disorders is the concept of the unconscious and how it can affect behavior
Which of the following is an example of family aggregation? Karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder
The mayor of a city wants to know the number of new cases of a disorder over the past year. The mayor should ask an epidemiologist for the ____ of the disorder. incidence rate
In Dr. Lu’s study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problem. In this example, the girls without eating disorders and the ____ group. control
Which of the following is an example of an ABAB design? A subject is observed both before and after two exposures to the treatment
All of the following were likely to be part of moral treatment in the 1800’s EXCEPT antipsychotic medication
In 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders
What is the focus of the field of developmental psychopathology? To understand what is within the range of normal development so as to have a better understanding of what is abnormal
Which of the following is NOT a culture-bound syndrome? hoopa
An important FIRST step in studying a particular disorder is determining the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder
The first classification of mental disorders involved recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder
When examining heredity, mental disorders are almost always caused by multiple genes
In most prospective studies, children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up.
The level of success achieved with the use of moral management is surprising because many patients suffered at the time from syphillis that was, at the time, incurable.
Exorcism is... a religious rite that is no longer used for the treatment of psychological problems
one of aristotles most major contributions to psychology was... his description of consciousness
The physicians of Alexandria, Egypt in the era after Alexander the Great were most likely to treat mental patients by providing activities, massage, and education
The process of assigning causes to things that happen is called attribution
Which of the following statements about brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorders is FALSE? Identifiable brain damage is often the cause of psychiatric disorders.
A contemporary of Pinel's in England who started a Quaker religious retreat for the mentally ill was William Tuke
Who is considered to be the "father" of behaviorism? Watson
Schemas may be a source of psychological vulnerability
At the start of the twentieth century in America, public attitudes toward the mentally ill were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance
Shackling a patient to a wall with little food or heat would be most typical of the early asylums in europe
abused infants and toddlers are likely to show inconsistent attachment behavior
The "neurasthenia" recognized in the 1800s resembles todays diagnosis of depression
A lack of social skills, poor school performance, and moodiness have all been associated with which of the following parenting styles? neglectful-uninvolved
What was the purpose of the early asylums? to remove those who would not care for themselves from society
Who studied how to deal with mentally ill criminals and concluded that such individuals were not responsible for their actions? Plato
During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as punitive
All of the following are credited with emphasizing the link between brain pathology and mental illness EXCEPT Dix
A predisposition toward developing a disorder is called diathesis
"Bedlam" in London was one of several hospitals for the mentally ill in different countries that exhibited their patients for profit
9. The genetic influences that determine behavior may never be fully understood due to the likelihood that most behaviors are determined by the interaction of many genes and the environment.
the likelihood that most behaviors are determined by the interaction of many genes and the environment. incorporated moral management therapy into treatments.
Practically speaking, "abnormal" behavior means unusual behaviors that are not consistent with the norms of the society in which they are displayed.
Which statement about treatment of abnormal behavior in the Middle Ages is accurate? Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches.
Which perspective or viewpoint focuses on intrapsychic conflicts as the cause of psychopathology? Psychodynamic
A psychologist who studied the relationship between sociocultural factors and mental disorders would be most likely to study poverty and racial discrimination.
Witmer is credited with... being the founder of clinical psychology
cortisol is a hormone that... the adrenal gland produces that mobilizes the body to deal with stress.
Which of the following is a criticism of traditional psychoanalytic theory? lack of scientific evidence
Kraepelin is credited with identifying different types of mental disorders.
Which of the following mental health professionals has a medical degree? psychiatrist
What does the case of JGH, a Native American elder, illustrate? A person may focus on somatic symptoms, rather than mood, when depressed.
Witmer is credited with being the founder of clinical psychology.
A common treatment for mental illness during the Middle Ages in Europe was exorcism
Which method for studying genetic influences fails to control for the possible effect of sharing a common environment? family history or pedigree method
Reuptake of neurotransmitters is the process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the axon.
Behaviorism was... a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor in psychoanalysis.
Which one of the following increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the United States? Dorothea Dix
Practically speaking, "abnormal" behavior means unusual behaviors that are not consistent with the norms of the society in which they are displayed.
A major scientific problem with analogue studies is the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occurring phenomenon.
In the field of abnormal psychology, what does DSM stand for? Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
What is a culture-specific disorder? A disorder seen only in certain cultures
Behaviorists suggest maladaptive behavior can be a result of failure to learn adaptive behaviors.
According to cognitive theorists, a lot of information that contributes to a person's psychopathology is processed at a nonconscious level.
A diathesis can best be described as a a contributory cause
Freud's view of mental disorders was that they were a result of unresolved conflicts between the id, the ego, and the superego.
The central principle of classical conditioning is that after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.
Damage to the pituitary would most likely lead to a hormonal imbalance
________ is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior. Classification
John Bowlby's attachment theory emphasized the quality of parental care in forming attachments.
Who is considered the founder of American psychiatry? William Tuke
A protective factor is... an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors.
Attractive children and unattractive babies tend to be treated differently. In other words, an infant's physical phenotype may alter how others respond to him or her. What type of genotype-environment correlation is this an example of? Evocative
Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders? kraepelin
Abused infants and toddlers are likely to show inconsistent attachment behavior.
What do the three psychosocial viewpoints addressed in this chapter all have in common? All emphasize the impact of early experiences.
Normally, the enzyme monoamine oxidase is involved in the breaking down of some neurotransmitters. This process is called deactivation.
A psychologist who studied the relationship between sociocultural factors and mental disorders would be most likely to study poverty and racial discrimination.
The use of malarial fever to treat paresis represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine.
Which variable is manipulated in an experiment? Independent
An elementary school principal wants to know the best predictors of juvenile delinquency and dropping out of school in high school so she can provide preventive interventions. Your best advice is: "The best predictor is aggression toward peers, which leads to peer rejection."
It is a hot day and a child sprays you with a garden hose. You might react with amusement (and even thanks!) or considerable anger. The fact that one event can be interpreted in different ways is central to the ________ approach to therapy. cognitive
A(n) ________ serves to guide our processing of information and may serve to distort memories. Schema
Highly coordinated children are picked out at an early age by coaches and given special opportunities to excel at sports. Extraverted children seek out social situations and become unusually comfortable with strangers. Both of these phenomena illustrate genotype-environment correlations.
Which of the following would be characteristic of the treatment provided by the first mental hospitals or sanatoria used by the Romans and Greeks? Warm baths and massages
Etiology is the causal pattern of a disorder.
The Nancy School/Charcot debate is best described as one that focuses on psychology vs biology.
The emergence of humanism brought about changes in all of the following EXCEPT an increase in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior.
The site of communication between two neurons is the synapse.
What trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe? Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.
A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.
Which psychosocial perspective was initially developed through laboratory research? behavioral
Tracy and Shahid are both 3 months old. Tracy is highly active, easily irritated, and cries easily. Shahid is quiet, adapts easily to change, and seems fearless. These differences illustrate differences in temperament.
Dr. Fox studies the causes of depression. In other words, she looks at factors that play a role in the ________ of depression. etiology
Sammy was deprived of his mother and father's love as a child. Operant conditioning theorists would believe his childhood would result in ________; cognitive theorists would emphasize the deprivation's effect on ________. a lack of social skills; dysfunctional self-schemas
What do the cases of Monique and Donald best illustrate? Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances.
What do the textbook authors identify as the most problematic element of Wakefield's definition of mental disorder? We have yet to discover the dysfunction that underlies most mental disorders.
A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the ________ research method. experimental
Cicero was feeling depressed. He sought help from Hippocrates. Hippocrates would probably have prescribed exercise, tranquility, and celibacy.
In ancient societies, if a person's abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.
Children from lower-SES families are less likely to show ill effects of SES status if they possess a high IQ and develop healthy attachments to adults and peers.
What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock? Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.
Which of the following did Freud believe played a causal role in the development of most forms of psychopathology? Anxiety disorders
Newer psychodynamic perspectives do not view the libido as a primary determinant of behavior.
According to cognitive theorists, a lot of information that contributes to a person's psychopathology is processed at a nonconscious level.
Which of the following psychodynamic elements of the personality can be described as impulsive and selfish? Id
Hippocrates suggested marriage as a cure for hysteria in women.
Learning not to do something because you are punished when you do it is an example of instrumental conditioning.
The effects of early social deprivation are explained differently by the various psychosocial perspectives.
Normal human cells have twenty-two chromosome pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes.
Archaeology and early writing indicate that the first people to think that the brain was the site of mental functions were the Ancient Egyptians
Todd and his siblings have parents who are physically abusive to each other. When they fight, they expect Todd to stay quiet and keep the other children under control. They allow the other children to cry and hide a nonshared environmental influence.
***childhood abuse is commonly seen in those who develop dissociative disorders later in life. childhood abuse would be best described as a*** distal contributory cause
most people with psychological disorders delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years
during the first half of the 20th century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as punitive
a researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the ______ research method experimental
why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis? the fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms
a major scientific problem with analogue studies is the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occurring phenomenon
at the start of the twentieth century in america, public attitudes toward the mentally ill were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance
a protective factor is an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors
which of the following would be characteristic of a treatment provided by the first mental hospitals or sanatoria used by the romans and greeks? warm baths a massages
in most prospective studies children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up
sammy was deprived of his mother and father's love as a child. operant conditioning theorists would believe his childhood would result in _____; cognitive theorists would emphasize the deprivations's effect on ______. a lack of social skills; dysfunctional self schemas
in 1983, a large group of west bank palestinian girls showed signs of illness. some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors played a key role in most cases. this incident best illustrates mass madness
the work of dorothea dix has been criticized for interfering with the provision of moral therapy
cross-cultural research on stress demonstrates that responses to stress vary cross-culturally
which of the following occurred in the late 20th century a movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community
abused infants and toddlers are likely to show inconsistent attachment behavior
most mental health treatment occurs in an outpatient setting
in the unites states, the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
an elementary school principal wants to know the best predictors of juvenile delinquency and dropping out of school in high school so she can provide preventive interventions. your best advice is: "the best predictor is aggression toward peers, which leads to peer rejection
new perceptions are experiences tend to be worked into our existing schemas, even if the new information must be distorted to fit them. this process is called assimilation
normal human cells have 22 chromosome pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes
who was one of the first physicians in the early 1500's to criticize the idea that mental illness was due to demon possession (although he did believe the moon influenced the brain)? paracelsus
the central principle of operant conditioning is that the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated
dr. simon, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. which of the following treatments is he most likely to suggest for julia's current state of depression? a combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs
a major finding from the national comorbidity survey (NCS) was that over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders
which of the following is NOT an example of the three phenomena that the term resilience has been used to describe? after failing french the first time, carl did not earn a passing grade when he took the course for a second time
in the diathesis-stress model, a stressor is a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms.
people in the middle ages believed that most witched and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways
what is the most important limitation of correlational studies? they cannot determine cause and effect
why are correlational (observational) research designs often used in abnormal psychology they are the most useful for comparing groups
a psychologist who takes an eclectic approach is most likely to make which of the following statements? "i will accept any explanation from psychoanalytic to biological as long as it works."
which of the following is a criticism of traditional psychoanalytic theory? lack of scientific evidence
a catharsis is an emotional release
the physicians of the nancy school demonstrated the power of suggestion
the loss of a parent may be a diathesis and/or stressor
why is it difficult to determine the nature of the relationship between divorce and the psychological functioning of family members? cause and effect cannot be determined as preexisting behavioral abnormalities in either the parents or the children may make divorce more likely
dr. katz is researching the causes of phobias. he puts an ad in a newspaper asking for people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. the major problem with this is he is not getting a representative sample
a researcher says, "these studies make it too easy for investigators to find the background factors they expect to find. however, they are more valid if we find documents like school reports that show the background factor before the disorder emerges." retrospective strategies
what is trephining? an ancient practice in which a hole was drilled in the skull to release evil spirits
Created by: julielava on 2011-08-28



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