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Chap - 1

Pharmacology HIM1442

study of drugs & their interactions with living organisms pharmacology
derived from Dutch word droog, which means dry, & refers to use of dried herbs & plants drug
prevent disease, diagnose disease, or treat symptoms, signs, conditions, & diseases three general medical uses for drugs
comes from Latin word for recipe, meaning take origin of Rx
pharmacology comes from Greek word pharmakon
pharmacology is concerned with the __ of drugs nature
pharmacology is concerned with the __ drugs have on the body effects
pharmacology is concerned with drug __ doses
pharmacology is concerned with the possible __ __ of drugs side effects
Latin word for drug is medicina, from which we derive the word(s) medicine/medication
refers to drug that is deliberately administered for its medicinal value as preventative, diagnostic, or therapeutic agent. medicine
study of the uses of drugs is known as pharmacotherapy
administration of a preventative drug prophylaxis
prophylaxis is from a Greek word meaning to keep guard over
indicates a prescription, the combining of ingredients to form a drug meaning of Rx
atropine & scopolamine are derived from belladonna
morphine is derived from opium
colchicine is derived from autumn crocus
ephedrine is derived from Ephedra
chemists developed techniques to extract & isolate pure substances from crude drug preparations preparation of drugs during 1800s
preparation of drugs utilized test tubes, filters, & Bunsen burners; pharmacists actually prepared drugs they dispensed preparation of drugs during 1900s
1906; 1st federal drug law; 1912 amendment required accurate labeling of drugs & only drugs listed in US Pharmacopeia or National Formulary could be prescribed Food & Drug Administration Act
1938; government no longer needed proof of fraud to stop sale of drug Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act
job to review data from drug manufacturer's scientific experiments & evaluate safety of drugs Food & Drug Administration (FDA)
1951; amended Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act; defined prescription drugs as those drugs that could only be given to patients under physician care Durham-Humphrey Amendment
1962; amendment to Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act; tightened control on existing prescription drugs & new drugs; drugs had to be shown safe & effective before being marketed Kefauver-Harris Amendment
1994; allowed FDA to set up guidelines for manufacturers of herbal products & dietary supplements Dietary Supplements & Health and Education Act
1997; gave FDA authority to accelerate approval process for certain types of drugs Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act
FDA allows physicians to prescribe some investigational drugs even before they are officially approved for marketing Emergency Treatment Investigational New Drug (IND)
Emergency Treatment Investigational New Drug (IND) is also known as Compassionate Use IND application
1996; all healthcare settings must provide patients with statement that verifies that their health record info, incl all drugs, is kept secure & only released to authorized inquiries from other providers, insurance, or healthcare quality monitoring orgs. Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA)
1899 Aspirin introduced
1913 Vitamins A & B discovered
1966 clotting factors introduced for hemophilia
1978 1st portable insulin pump introduced
1987 AZT introduced; 1st drug for HIV
1985 ACE inhibitor drugs introduced for hypertension
1996 Fosamax introduced for osteoporosis
1999 Celebrex introduced for arthritis; 1st COX-2 inhibitor
2003 Fuzeon introduced; 1st fusion inhibitor drug for HIV
2008 Xenazine introduced; 1st FDA-approved drug for Huntington's disease
even when a drug included the name of addictive ingredient in its title or on its label consumers were unaware of it addictive qualities
for each new drug FDA must weigh __ __ against __ __ of the drug inherent risks; potential benefits
1988, FDA was moved under federal Department of Health & Human Services
defined as those drugs that are not safe to use except under professional medical supervision prescriptions drugs
defined as one that can be purchased without a prescription & generally considered safe for consumer use if label directions followed carefully over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
potentially addictive drugs; divided into 5 categories based on their potential for physical/psychological dependence schedule drugs
capital C stands for controlled substance
number written inside capital C stands for assigned schedule
extremely high potential for abuse/addition; no currently accepted medical use; not available under any circumstances even w/prescription Schedule I
examples of Schedule I substances heroin, LSD, marijuana, methaqualone, peyote, psilocybin
high potential for abuse/addiction; currently accepted medical use; requires official prescription form; severe physical/psychological dependence may result Schedule II
examples of Schedule II cocaine, codeine, Demerol, Dilaudid, methadone, morphine, OxyContin, Percodan, Ritalin
less potential for abuse/addition; currently accepted medical use; moderate physical/psychological dependence may result Schedule III
examples of Schedule III anabolic steroids, Hycodan, Paregoric, testosterone, Tylenol w/Codeine, Vicodin
less potential for abuse/addition; currently accepted medical use; limited-to-moderate physical/psychological dependence may result Schedule IV
examples of Schedule IV drugs Ambien, Darvon, Librium, Meridia, Valium, Xanax
limited potential for abuse; currently accepted medical use; some physical/psychological dependence may result Schedule V
examples of Schedule V drugs cough syrups with codeine, Lomotil
1983; facilitate development of new drugs to treat rare diseases Orphan Drug Act
drugs to treat rare diseases; streamlined process of FDA approval orphan drugs