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ELLIST#85

KEY TERMS CH 9 - COMPOUNDING

QuestionAnswer
What is extemporaneous compounding? the on-demand preparation of a drug
What are class A balances? balance scales that can weigh as little as 120 mg of material with a 5% error
What is the sensitivity of a balance? the amount of weight that will move the balance pointer one division mark
What are electronic or analytical balances? highly sensitive balances that can weigh quantities smaller than 120 mg
What are weighing papers or boats? items that should always be placed on the balance pans before any weighing is done
What are mortars and pestles used for? they are used to grind powders
What are the types of volumetric glassware? graduates, flasks, pipets, and syringes
What is the rule for measuring small volumes? always use the smallest device that will hold the desired volume of liquid
What is a graduated cylinder? a cylinder with horizontal lines that represent the units of measure
What are disposable syringes used for? to measure small volumes accurately and precisely
What is a meniscus? the curved surface of a volume of a liquid; read the bottom of the curve
When are medicine droppers used? to deliver small liquid doses, but they must be calibrated first
What is trituration? the process of grinding powders to reduce particle size
What is levigation? grinding a powdered drug with a solvent in which the drug is insoluble
What is geometric dilution? a technique for mixing two powders of unequal size
What is a solvent? a liquid that dissolves another substance
What are nonaqeous solutions? solutions that contain solvents other than water
What is a thickening agent? an ingredient used in a suspension to increase the viscosity
What are suspensions? formulations in which the drug isn't completely dissolved
What are flocculating agents? electrolytes used in the preparation of suspensions
What are ointments and creams? ointments are simple mixtures of a drug(s) in an ointment base and a cream is a semi-solid emulsion
What is an emulsion? an unstable solution of unmixable liquids
What is an oil in water (o/w) emulsion? an emulsion of oils, petroleum hydrocarbons, or waxes with water
What is a water in oil (w/o) emulsion? an emulsion of a liquid in an oil based medium
What are emulsifiers? stabilizing agents in emulsions
What are the three classes of suppository bases? oleaginous bases, water soluble or miscible bases, and hydrophilic bases
What are polyethylene glycols (PEGs)? water soluble bases that are chemically stable, nonirritating, and miscible with water
What is fusion molding? a method in which the drug is dispersed or dissolved in a melted suppository base
What is compression molding? a method of making suppositories made by compressing the ingredients into a mold
What is a syrup? a concentrated solution of sucrose in water
What is USP/NF Chapter <795>? regulations pertaining to nonsterile compounding or formulations
What is USP/NF Chapter <797>? regulations pertaining to sterile compounding or formulations
What does it mean to calibrate? to set, mark, or check graduations of a measuring device
What is an arrest knob? the knob on a balance that prevents movement of the balance
What is sonication? exposure to high frequency sound waves
What is spatulation? the mixing of powders with a spatula
What is a formulation record? the record of formulas and procedures for the formulation of a compound
What is an aliquot? a portion of a mixture
What is USP/NF grade? the lowest grade of purity for an ingredient in a compound
What is a primary standard? the highest grade of purity for an ingredient
What is a hydrophilic emulsifier? a stabilizing agent for water-based emulsions
What is a lipophilic emulsifier? a stabilizing agent for oil based emulsions
What is a mucilage? a wet, slimy liquid formed as an initial step in a wet gum method
What is the "punch" method? a method for filling capsules by "punching" the capsule into a drug powder
Why is compounding important? sometimes a unique dosage form is not available commercially
What is extemporaneous compounding? when a medication is prepared for a specific patient
What is bulk compounding? a medication is prepared in anticipation of a prescription
What is a master formula? a set of specific instructions for making a product
What information should be included on a master formula? 1. product name 2. dosage form 3. raw materials needed 4. measures of each material 5. quantity of total yield 6. equipment needed 7. shelf-life and expiration date 8. packing/storage requirements 9. labels
What should be on the production logs that are required for bulk compounded products? 1. date of compounding 2. lot/batch number 3. manufacturer's lot # and name of each raw material used 4. weights and measures 5. verification signature 6. sample labeling 7. expiration date
What should be on the label of the compounded product? 1. product name and strength 2. dosage form 3. lot/batch number 4. storage conditions 5. expiration date 6. auxiliary labels and special instructions
What is stability? the integrity of a dosage form and its ability to withstand contamination
What are some common solvents? water, ethanol, glycerin, propylene glycol, and various syrups
Created by: pharmtechteach on 2011-08-25



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