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LOM ch 12

Respiratory System

adenoidectomy removal of the adenoids
adenoid hypertrophy excessive development (enlargement) of adenoids
adenoids Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils
alveolar pertaining to the alveolus
alveolus; alveoli air sac in the lung
anosmia absence of the sense of smell
apex of the lung Tip or the uppermost portion of the lung
apical pertaining to (at) the apex
apnea Stoppage of breathing
asphyxia Decrease in the amount of oxygen and increase in amount of carbon dioxide in the blood leading to absence of pulse
atelectasis incomplete expansion of the lung
base of the lung Lower portion of the lung
bronchiectasis Dilation of the bronchial tubes
bronchioles Smallest branches of the bronchi.
bronchiolitis Inflammation of the bronchioles
bronchodilator a substance (chemical or drug) that widens bronchial tubes to make breathing easier
bronchospasm Involuntary contraction of muscles in the walls of bronchial tubes
bronchus; bronchi Branch of the trachea that is a passageway into the lung
carbon dioxide Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine; exhaled through the lungs
cilia Thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract
cyanosis Condition of bluish coloration of skin caused by decreased oxygen in the blood
diaphragm Muscle separating the chest and abdomen; contracts and relaxes to make breathing possible
dysphonia Difficult (abnormal) voice; hoarseness or any voice impairment
dyspnea Difficulty breathing
empyema Pus in the pleural cavity
epiglottis lid-tike piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing
epiglottitis Inflammation of the epiglottis
expectoration expulsion of material (mucus or phlegm)
expiration Breathing out (exhalation)
glottis Slit-like opening to the larynx
hemoptysis Spitting up blood
hemothorax Blood in the pleural cavity; seen in pneumonia, tuberculosis, or carcinoma
hilum of the lung Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs.
hilar pertaining to (at) the hilum
hypercapnia Excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperpnea Increase in the depth of breathing
hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen (anoxia) due to decreased oxygen in the blood
inspiration Breathing in (inhalation)
laryngeal pertaining to the larynx
laryngospasm Contraction of the muscles of the larynx
laryngitis Inflammation of the voice box
larynx Voice box; contains the vocal cords
lobectomy removal of a portion of the lung
mediastinoscopy visual examination of the mediastinum
mediastinum Region between the lungs in the chest cavity
nasogastric intubation Tube placed from the nose into the stomach
orthopnea Breathing discomfort in any position but trunk erect (sitting or standing straight)
oxygen Gas that passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells
palatine tonsil One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx (palatine means pertaining to the roof of the mouth)
paranasal sinus One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose
parietal pleura Outer fold of pleura (lying closer to the ribs and the chest wall)
pharyngeal Pertaining to the throat
pharynx Throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
phrenic nerve Nerve that carries messages from the brain to the diaphragm
pleura Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung
pleural cavity Space between the folds of the pleura
pleurodynia Pain associated with inflammation of irritation of pleura (or pain from intercostal muscles)
pneumonectomy Removal of a lung
pneumothorax Air within the pleural cavity (within the space between the folds)
pulmonary Pertaining to the lungs
pulmonary parenchyma Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli
pyothorax Pus in the pleural cavity (within the space between the folds)
respiration Process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing
rhinoplasty Surgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhea Discharge from the nose
sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses
spirometer Instrument to measure breathing (the air taken into and exhaled from the lungs)
tachypnea Increase in the rate of breathing; shallow respirations
thoracic pertaining to the chest
thoracoscopy Visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope
thoracotomy Incision of the chest
tonsillectomy Removal of the tonsils
trachea Windpipe
tracheal stenosis Pertaining to narrowing of the trachea
tracheotomy incision of the trachea
visceral pleura the inner layer of the pleura (closer to the lung)
laryngectomy surgical removal of the voice box
phrenic pertaining to the diaphragm
hypoxemia condition of decreased oxygen in the blood
Asbestosis Type of pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos (insulating material used in shipbuilding, construction, past brake pads)
percussion Sharp, short blows to the surface of the chest
auscultation listening to sounds within the body, usually with a stethoscope
rales Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation when there is fluid in the alveoli
rhonchi Loud rumbling sounds heard on ascultation caused by bronchi obstructed by sputum
sputum material that is expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract
pleural rub scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other
stridor strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx associated with CROUP
croup acute viral infection with obstruction of the larynx, barking cough and stridor
epistaxis nose bleed
diphtheria Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by diphtheria bacterium; the D in DPT
Pertusis Whooping cough; the P in DPT
asthma Bronchial airway obstruction marked by paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing and cough
cystic fibrosis Inherited disorder of the exocrine glands resulting in thick mucous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally
emphysema Hyperinflation of the air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
pneumoconiosis Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
PPD skin test for TB
Endotracheal tube Tube is placed through the mouth to the trachea to establish an airway.
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; airway obstruction associated with emphysema and chronic bronchitis
a- an- no; not; without
dys- ABNORMAL; DIFFICULT; bad; painful
em- in
endo- in; within
ex- OUT; away from
hyper- EXCESSIVE; above
hypo- DEFICIENT; LESS THAN NORMAL; below, under
par- ABNORMAL; other than
para- NEAR; along the side of; beside; abnormal; apart from
re- AGAIN; back; backward
-al pertaining to
-ar pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-ation process; condition
-constriction narrowing
-desis BIND; tie together
-dilation expanding; widening; stretching
-dynia pain
-eal pertaining to
-ectasis EXPANSION; WIDENING; dilation; dilatation
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-ema condition
-emia blood condition
-ia condition
-ic pertaining to
-itis inflammation
-lytic reducing; breakdown; destroying; separating
-meter measure
-osis condition, usually abnormal
-osmia smell
-plasty surgical repair
-pnea breathing
-ptysis spitting
-rrhea discharge; flow
-scopy visual examination
-spasm sudden contraction of muscle
-sphyxia pulse
-stenosis tightening; stricture
-thorax pleural cavity; chest
-tomy incision
-trophy nourishment; development (condition of)
-um tissue; structure; thing
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
alveol/o alveolus; air sac
anthrac/o coal dust
asbest/o asbestos (material used for insulating: shipbuilding, construction, brake pads of the past)
atel/o incomplete
bronch/o bronchial tube
bronchi/o bronchus
bronchiol/o bronchiole; small bronchus
capn/o carbon dioxide
coni/o dust
cyan/o blue
epiglott/o epiglottis (lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx)
fibros/o fibrous connective tissue
gastr/o stomach
hem/o blood
hydr/o water
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
lob/o lobe
mediastin/o mediastinum (middle region in chest cavity)
muc/o mucus
nas/o nose
noct/o night
or/o mouth
orth/o straight
ox/o oxygen
oxysm/o sudden
pector/o chest
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
phon/o voice; sound
phren/o diaphragm (motor nerve to diaphragm); (when related to psychology phren/o = mind)
pleuro/o pleura (double folded membrane that covers each lung)
pneum/o lung; air; gas
pneumon/o lung; air; gas
pulmon/o lung
purul/o pus
py/o pus
rhin/o nose
silic/o glass; rocks (the dust created from grinding)
sinus/o sinus (a cavity)
spir/o to breathe
tel/o complete
thorac/o chest
tom/o to cut (as used in tomogram, images are shown as slices at different depths)
tonsill/o tonsils
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
viscer/o internal organs
Created by: mscardenas