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Chabner Ch5 Terms

Chabner, Language of Medicine 7th ed Chapter 5 Digestion System Terms

absorption passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids building blocks of proteins & produced when proteins are digested
amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ). Literally means "hanging" (pend/o) "on" (ap-)
bile digestive juice made in the liver, stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules.
bilirubin pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel intestine
canine teeth pointed, dog-like teeth next to (distal to) the incisors
cecum first part of the large intestine
colon large intestine (cecum, ascending, transverse, & descending colon, and rectum)
common bile duct carries bile from the liver & gallbladder to the duodenum
defecation expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus
deglutition swallowing
dentin major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown, and a protective layer of cementum in the root
digestion breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum first part of the small intestine; duo=2, den=10; (the duodenum measures 12 inches long)
elimination removal of waste material from the body
emulsification physical process of breaking up large fat globules
enamel hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances
esophagus tube connecting the throat to the stomach
fatty acids substances produced when fats are digested
feces solid wasts;stools
gallbladder small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrochloric acid substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum 3rd part of the small intestine
incisor one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas; it transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum 2nd part of the small intestine
lipase pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar,iron, and vitamins;produces blood proteins; and destroys worn out blood cells
lower esophagel sphincter (LES) ring of muscles between the esophagus & the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter
mastication chewing
molar teeth 6th, 7th, 8th teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
palate roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate
pancreas organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) & enzymes (for digestion of foods)
papillae small elevations on the tongue. a papilla is a nipple-like elevation
parotid gland salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract & other tubular structures. Peristalsis moves the contents through the GI tract @ different rates
pharynx throat,the common passageway for food from the mouth & air from the nose
portal vein large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease enzymes that digest protein
pulp soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves & blood vessels
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
rectum last section of the colon
rugae ridges on the hard palate & the wall of the stomach
saliva digestive juice produced by salivary blands
salivary glands parotid, sublingual, & submandibular glands
sigmoid colon lower part of the colon; shaped like an S
sphincter ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts of the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), & antrum (distal section)
triglycerides large fat molecules composed of 3 parts fatty acid & one part glycerol
uvula soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth
villi microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
anastomosis surgical connection between 2 parts such as vessels, ducts, or bowel segments
mesentery part of the double fold or peritoneum that stretches around the organs in the abdomen, the mesentery holds the organs in place
parenteral an intravenous line that brings nutrition directly into the bloodstream bypassing the intestinal tract
Created by: spicygrits