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LOM Book Chapter 14

Language of Medicine Chapter 14 - Created by MTatHome.com

acquired immunity Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Depression or suppression of the immune system after exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems.
adenoids Masses of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.
allergen Substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity in a body; an antigen.
allergy Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen (allergen).
anaphylaxis Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance.
antibody Protein produced in the bloodstream by lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen, such as bacterium or toxin. Antibodies destroy or weaken antigens.
atopy Intense allergic reaction (such as asthma) influenced by hereditary tendency or predisposition.
autoimmune disease Chronic disabling disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies to normal body tissues; multiple sclerosis and lupus erythematosus are examples.
axillary node Lymph node under the arm.
B cell A lymphocyte that originates in bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.
CD4+ lymphocytes Helper T-cells that carry the CD4+ protein antigen on their surface.
cell-mediated immunity Type of immune response that involves T-cell lymphocytes. These lymphocytes act directly on antigens to destroy them.
cervical node Lymph node in the neck.
cytokine Protein that aids cells to destroy antigens. Examples are interleukins and interferons.
cytotoxic cell T-cell lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells; T8 cell.
dendritic cell A type of macrophage that captures antigens and presents them to T-cells for destruction.
ELISA Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in blood. This is a screening test for AIDS.
helper T cell Lymphocyte that aids a B-cell lymphocyte in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production.
hypersplenism Syndrome of spleen enlargement (splenomegaly) and destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).
immune response The body’s capability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that can damage tissue and organs.
immunoelectrophoresis Laboratory test that separates immunoglobulins (lgG, lgM, IgD, IgE, and IgA).
Immunoglobulins Antibodies (proteins) secreted by B-cell lymphocytes (plasma cells).
immunosuppression Blocking or turning off the normal immune response.
immunotherapy Use of immunologic techniques to treat disease.
inguinal node Lymph node in the groin region.
interferons Anti-viral proteins secreted by lymphocytes.
interleukins Proteins (cytokines) that simulate the immune system including B & T cell lymphocytes.
interstitial fluid Fluid that fills the spaces in between cells.
kaposi sarcoma Malignant tumor of skin and connective tissue; associated with AIDS.
lymph Fluid that circulates within lymph vessels and lymph nodes.
lymph capillaries Tiny lymph vessels that carry lymph through the body.
lymph node Mass of stationary lymphatic tissue along the path of lymph vessels.
lymph vessels Carry lymph throughout the body.
lymphadenitis Inflammation of lymph nodes.
lymphadenopathy Disease of lymph nodes.
lymphedema Abnormal collection of fluid in tissue spaces caused by obstruction of lymph vessels and backflow of lymph.
lymphocytes White blood cells that develop primarily in lymph nodes and the spleen and fight against foreign organisms.
lymphocytopenia Deficiency of lymphocytes.
lymphocytosis Increase in numbers of lymphocytes in the bloodstream.
lymphoid organs Organs containing and derived from lymphatic tissue; spleen, thymus gland, and lymph nodes.
lymphoma Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue.
lymphopoiesis Formation of lymphocytes.
macrophage Large phagocyte found in lymphatic tissues and connective tissues; derived from a monocyte.
mediastinal node Lymph node in the mediastinum (central area between the lungs in the chest).
monoclonal antibody Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack specific antigens.
multiple myeloma Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells (plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins).
natural immunity Person’s own genetic ability to fight off disease. It includes phagocytes and lymphocytes such as natural killer cells.
natural killer cell Lymphocyte that recognizes and destroys foreign cells by releasing proteins called cytokines.
non-Hodgkin lymphoma Malignant tumor of cells (lymphocytes and large macrophages called histocytes) found in lymph nodes and spleen.
opportunistic infections Infectious diseases associated with AIDS; toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, herpes simplex, and Pneumocystosis carinii pneumonia (PCP).
plasma cell B cell lymphocyte that secretes antibodies.
protease inhibitor (PI) Drug used to treat AIDS by blocking production of protease, an enzyme that helps HIV to reproduce.
retrovirus Virus that makes copies of itself using the host cell’s DNA, a process that is the reverse of the normal replication mechanism in cells. HIV is a retrovirus.
reverse transcriptase inhibitor Drug used to treat AIDS by blocking an enzyme (reverse transcriptase), needed to make copies of HIV.
right lymphatic duct Receives lymph from the right side of the body and empties lymph into a vein in the neck.
spleen Organ adjacent to the stomach (in the LUQ) that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells.
splenectomy Removal of the spleen.
splenomegaly Enlargement of the spleen.
suppressor T cell Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T cell lymphocytes.
T cell Lymphocyte originating in the thymus gland and destroys antigens by direct action or production of cytokines such as interferons and interleukins.
thoracic duct Large lymphatic vessel in the upper chest.
thymectomy Removal of the thymus gland.
thymoma Malignant tumor of the thymus gland.
thymus gland Lymphoid organ in the mediastinum that produces T cell lymphocytes and aids in the immune response.
toxic Pertaining to a toxin, which is a poison or harmful substance.
toxins Poison or harmful substance.
vaccination Introduction of a vaccine (containing dead or weakened antigen) to produce immunity. It is a type of acquired immunity.
vaccine Weakened or dead antigen is administered to induce production of antibodies resulting in immunity.
viral load test Measures the amount of HIV in the blood stream.
wasting syndrome Weight loss and decrease in muscle strength, appetite, and mental activity that occurs with AIDS.
western blot Specific test to detect presence of anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream.
Created by: mtathome