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Chabner Ch3 Appendix

Chabner, Language of Medicine 7th ed Chapter 3 Appendix

Hernia a protrusion of an organ or muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it.
Hiatal hernia when the stomach protrudes upward into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
Inguinal hernia when part of the intestine protrudes downward into the groin region
rectocele protrusion of a portion of the rectum toward the vagina through a weak part of the vaginal wall muscles
omphalocele herniation of the intestines through the navel (occuring in infants at birth)
cystocele when part of the urinary bladder protrudes through the vaginal wall due to weakened pelvic muscles
streptococcus berry-shaped bacteria that grows in twisted chains
staphylococcus berry-shaped bacteria that grow in clusters
abscess a collection of pus, white blood cells and protein present at the site of an infection
diplococci berry-shaped bacteria organized in pairs
erythrocytes red blood cells
hemoglobin protein in erythrocytes that carries oxygen
leukocytes white blood cells (5 different types)
granulocytes polymorphonuclear cells that contain dark-staining granules
eosinophil (granules stain red with acid) active and elevated in allergic conditions
basophils (granules stain blue with basic stain) function is not clear, may play a role in inflammation
neutrophils important disease-fighting cells that are phagocytes.
"polys" neutrophils, most numerous white blood cells
mononuclear leukocytes have one large nucleus (2 types of mononuclear WBCs)
lymphocytes lymph cells; produce antibodies, T cells and B cells
monocytes engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells
thrombocytes platelets, formed in the bone marrow and necessary for clotting the blood.
anemia reduction in number of erythrocytes or hemoglobin
aplastic anemia severe anemia when bone marrow fails to produce erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes
ischemia hold back blood from a part of the body
tonsillitis infection of the tonsils
acromegaly endocrine disorder produces excessive amount of growth hormone
achondroplasia inherited disorder when bones of arms and legs fail to grow to nromal size because of a defect in both cartilage and bone.
laparoscopy visual examination of the abadominal cavity using a laparascope
arteriole the smallest arteries
venules smallest of veins
adenoids lymphatic tissue near the nose and nasal passages (literal: resembling glands)
Created by: spicygrits