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LOM Book Chapter 11

Language of Medicine Chapter 11 - Created by MTatHome.com

ACE inhibitor Drug that causes dilation of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure, prevents heart attacks, strokes, and congestive heart failure. ACE stands for angiotensin-converting enzyme, which normally constricts blood vessels.
acute coronary syndromes Consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack).
aneurysm Local widening or ballooning out of a small area of an artery.
angina Chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia.
angiogram X-ray record of a blood vessel.
angiography X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material.
angioplasty Surgical repair of a blood vessel.
anoxia Lack of oxygen in body tissues.
aorta Largest artery in the body.
aortic stenosis Narrowing of the aorta.
arrhythmia Without rhythm; an irregular beat of the heart.
arterial anastomosis Surgical connection between two arteries.
arteriography X-ray recording of arteries; contrast is injected.
arteriosclerosis Hardening of an artery with collection of fatty plaque.
artery Largest type of blood vessel.
atherectomy Removal of plaque (lipids and clots) that accumulate in the lining of an artery.
atheroma Mass of fatty plaque that collects in an artery.
atherosclerosis Form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty plaque deposits in the interior lining of an artery.
atrial Pertaining to an atrium (upper chamber of the heart).
atrial fibrillation Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the atria, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting with a normal rhythm.
atrioventricular block Failure of conduction of impulses from the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle and ventricles of the heart.
atrioventricular bundle Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting impulses between them; bundle of His.
atrioventricular node Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the sino-atrial node (pacemaker) through the atrioventricular node and atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) toward the ventricles.
atrium (pl. atria) Upper chamber of the heart.
auscultation Use of a stethoscope to listen for sounds emanating from the heart or other organs.
beta-blocker Drug used to treat high blood pressure and control heart rate.
brachial artery Artery that carries blood to the arm.
bradycardia Slow heartbeat.
bruit An abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard on auscultation of an artery or an organ.
bundle of His Atrioventricular bundle.
calcium channel blocker Drug used to treat chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure (hypertension).
capillary Smallest blood vessel.
carbon dioxide Gas released by body cells and carried by veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation; CO2
cardiac arrest Sudden, unexpected stoppage of the heart; sudden cardiac death.
cardiac catheterization Then, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery and after contrast material is introduced, blood pressure is measured, and x-rays taken to image patterns of blood flow.
cardiac MRI Images of the heart are produced with magnetic waves.
cardiac tamponade Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space.
cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart.
cardiomyopathy Disease of heart muscle.
cardioversion Treatment for serious arrhythmias using brief discharges of electricity to shock the heart so that a normal rhythm can begin; defibrillation.
claudication Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.
coarctation of the aorta Congenital anomaly in which a portion of the aorta near the heart is narrowed or stenosed.
computerized tomography angiography X-ray images are combined with compu8terized tomography to produce a three-dimensional picture of the heart and blood vessels.
congenital heart disease Structural heart defects that appear at birth.
congestive heart failure Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.
coronary artery bypass grafting Arteries or veins are grafted onto coronary arteries to bypass blocked arteries and bring needed blood supply to the myocardium.
coronary artery bypass grafting Arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become clogged and blocked with deposits of fatty material and cholesterol (plaque).
cyanosis Abnormal condition of blueness of the skin; caused by decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the blood.
deep-vein thrombosis Blood clots form in a large vein, usually in the leg.
deoxygenated blood Blood that is oxygen-poor.
diastole Relaxation phase of the heartbeat.
digital subtraction angiography Video equipment, computer and x-ray machine produce images of blood vessels before and after injecting contrast material.
digoxin Drug that increases the strength and regularity of the heartbeat.
Doppler ultrasound Method of focusing sound waves on blood vessels to measure blood flow.
echocardiography High-energy sound waves are transmitted into the chest and images recorded of valves, chambers, surfaces and movement of the heart.
electrocardiogram Record of the electricity flowing through the heart.
electrocardiography Process of recording the electricity flowing through the heart.
electron beam computed tomography Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early coronary artery disease.
embolus (pl. emboli) A clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel.
endarterectomy Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery.
endocarditis Inflammation of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart).
endocardium Inner lining of the heart.
endothelium Innermost lining of blood vessels.
extracorporeal circulation Use of a heart-lung machine to divert blood from the heart and lungs during open heart surgery.
fibrillation Random, rapid, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the atria or ventricles.
flutter Rapid, but regular contractions of the heart, usually of the atria.
heart transplantation Donor heart is transferred to a recipient.
hemorrhoids Swollen, twisted veins in the rectal and anal region.
holter monitoring Compact version of an electrocardiograph is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias.
hypercholesterolemia High levels of cholesterol in the blood.
hypertension High blood pressure.
Hypoxia Hypoxia is deficiency of oxygen in body tissues.
implantable cardioverter defibrillator Small electric device implanted inside the chest (near the collarbone) to sense arrhythmias and terminate them to restore normal sinus rhythm.
infarction Area of dead tissue.
interventricular septum Wall between the ventricles of the heart.
ischial Pertaining to the ischium (posterior portion of the hip bone).
left ventricular assist device Booster pump implanted in the abdomen with a tube inserted into the left ventricle. An LVAD is a “bridge to transplant” or destination therapy when heart transplantation is impossible.
lipid tests Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a sample of blood.
lipoprotein electrophoresis Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated in a blood sample. Examples of lipoproteins are HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL (low density lipoprotein).
mitral stenosis Narrowing of the mitral valve.
mitral valve Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle; bicuspid valve.
mitral valve prolapse Abnormal closure of the mitral valve so the blood refluxes backward into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.
mitral valvulitis Inflammation of the mitral valve.
murmur Extra sound heard between normal beats during auscultation of the heart.
myocardial infarction Area of dead (necrotic) tissue in the heart muscle; heart attack.
myocardium Muscular layer of the heart.
myxoma Rare neoplasm of connective tissue found in the heart muscle.
nitroglycerin Drug used in the treatment of angina (pectoris). It dilates coronary arteries so that more blood flows to the heart muscle.
normal sinus rhythm Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial note. (pacemaker of the heart).
occlusion Blockage or closure of a vessel or tube.
pacemaker Specialized nervous tissue in the wall of the right atrium; it begins the heartbeat; sinoatrial node.
palpitations Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as skipped beats.
patent ductus arteriosus The ductus arteriosus, a small duct that is open during fetal circulation, fails to close at birth.
percutaneous coronary intervention A catheter with a balloon and stent is inserted into a coronary artery to remove collections of plaque. Drug-eluting stents release chemicals to keep debris and plaque from recollecting.
pericardial friction rub Scraping or grating sound heard on auscultation of the heart. It is usually symptomatic of pericarditis.
pericardiocentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart.
pericarditis Inflammation of the pericardium (double-layered outermost membrane of the heart).
pericardium Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
peripheral vascular disease Blockage of blood vessels outside the heart. Carotid artery occlusion is an example.
petechiae Small pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin.
phlebotomy Incision into a vein.
positron emission tomography (PET scan of the heart) Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive substances.
pulmonary artery Blood vessel carrying oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
pulmonary circulation Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart.
pulmonary valve A valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary vein One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulse Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.
radiofrequency catheter ablation To treat certain cardiac arrhythmias, radiofrequency energy is delivered from the tip of a catheter inserted through a blood vessel into the heart. The treatment destroys or ablates the tissue causing the arrhythmia.
Raynaud disease Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis in fingers and toes caused by blood vessel spasms.
rheumatic heart disease Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever.
septal defects Small holes, present at birth, in the walls between the heart chambers.
septum (pl. septa) Wall or partition. The interatrial septum lies between the atria of the heart and the interventricular septum is between the ventricles of the heart.
serum enzyme tests Chemicals measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack. Examples are creatine kinase (CK), troponin-I (cTnl), and troponin-T (cTnT).
sinoatrial node Sensitive nervous tissue in the wall of the right atrium; pacemaker of the heart.
sphygmomanometer Instrument to measure blood pressure.
statins Drugs given to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream.
stethoscope Instrument for listening to sounds in the chest.
stress test Exercise tolerance test (ETT) is used to determine the heart’s response to physical exertion.
systemic circulation Flow of blood from body tissues to the heart and from the heart back to the tissues.
systole Contraction phase of the heartbeat.
tachycardia Rapid heartbeat.
technetium 99m sestamibi scan Uptake of a radioactive chemical (technetium 99m sestamibi) in myocardium reveals evidence of a heart attack (myocardial infarction).
telemetry Continuous monitoring of a patient’s heart rhythm in a hospital.
tetralogy of Fallot Four separate defects of the heart occurring at birth.
thallium 201 scan Concentration of a radioactive substance (thallium 201) is measured in the myocardium to show evidence of an infarction (“cold spots”).
thrill Fine vibration felt on palpation (touching) the body over a blood vessel that is blocked.
thrombolysis Destruction of a clot.
thrombolytic therapy Injection of drugs (streptokinase and tPA) to dissolve clots in the bloodstream.
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein and formation of a clot within the vein.
thrombotic occlusion Blockage of a blood vessel caused by thrombosis or clot formation.
tricuspid valve A valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle.
valve Structure in a vein or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in the proper direction.
valvotomy Incision of a valve.
valvuloplasty Surgical repair of a valve.
varicose veins Swollen, twisted veins, often occurring in the legs.
vascular Pertaining to a blood vessel.
vasoconstriction Narrowing of a blood vessel.
vasodilation Widening of a blood vessel; vasodilatation.
vegetations Collections of clotted material that accumulate on endocardium and valves of the heart in conditions such as endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease.
vein Thin-walled blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood from body tissues back to the heart.
vena cava (pl. venae cavae) Larges vein in the body. The venae cavae (inferior and superior) return blood to the heart from the body tissues.
venipuncture Incision of a vein to remove blood.
venous Pertaining to a vein.
ventricle One of two lower chambers of the heart.
venule Small vein.
Created by: mtathome