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LOM Book Chapter 10

Language of Medicine Chapter 10 - Created by MTatHome.com

absence seizure Minor form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of contact with the environment; petit mal seizure.
acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
afferent nerves Carry nervous impulses toward the brain and spinal cord; sensory nerves.
akinetic Pertaining to loss or absence of voluntary movement.
Alzheimer disease Brain disorder marked by progressive, gradual mental deterioration (dementia) along with personality changes and impairment of daily functioning.
analgesia Absence of sensitivity to pain.
anencephaly Congenital condition of partial or complete absence of brain matter.
anesthesia Lack of feeling or sensation.
aneurysm Weakening of an arterial wall, which may lead to hemorrhage and cerebrovascular accident (stroke).
aphasia Inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex.
apraxia Inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects.
arachnoid membrane Middle layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
astrocyte Glial (neuroglial) cell that transports salts and water from capillaries.
astrocytoma Brain tumor composed of astrocytes (glial cells). The most serious of these tumors is a glioblastoma multiforme (Grades III and IV malignant brain tumor).
ataxia Without coordination.
aura Peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms.
autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
axon Microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Bell palsy Unilateral paralysis of the face caused by a disorder of the facial nerve.
blood-brain barrier Blood vessels that let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
bradykinesia Slow movement.
brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
cauda equine Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
causalgia Intensely unpleasant burning pain in a limb following damage to nerves.
cell body Part of the nerve cell (neuron) that contains the nucleus.
central nervous system Brain and spinal cord.
cephalgia Head pain; headache.
cerebellar Pertaining to the cerebellum.
cerebellopontine Pertaining to the cerebellum and pons.
cerebellum Part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
cerebral angiography X-ray record of blood vessels in the brain after intravenous injection of contrast material.
cerebral concussion Temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury; usually clearing within 24 hours.
cerebral contusion Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic disorder persists longer than 24 hours.
cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum.
cerebral hemorrhage Bursting of an artery in the brain.
cerebral palsy Partial paralysis and muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period.
cerebrospinal fluid Clear, watery fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrospinal fluid analysis Samples of cerebrospinal fluid are examined for blood cells, protein, glucose, tumor cells, bacteria and other substances.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Disruption of the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke.
cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory, among other functions.
coma State of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused.
comatose Pertaining to a coma.
computed tomography Cross-sectional x-ray imaging of an organ (such as the brain or spinal cord), with or without contrast material.
cranial nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain.
dementia Mental decline and deterioration.
demyelination Destruction of myelin on axons of nerves (as in multiple sclerosis).
dendrite Microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of the nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse.
dopamine Neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; deficient in patients with Parkinson disease.
doppler/ultrasound studies Sound waves are used to detect blood flow in arteries within the brain and leading to the brain.
dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
dyskinesia Impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements.
dyslexia Difficulty in reading, writing, and learning.
efferent nerves Carry messages away from the brain, the spinal cord; motor nerves.
electroencephalography (EEG) Process of recording the electricity within the brain.
embolus Blood clot that is carried by the bloodstream from one area of the body to another where it blocks a blood vessel.
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain.
encephalopathy Disease of the brain.
ependymal cell A glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
epidural hematoma Collection of blood located above the dura mater.
epilepsy Brain disorder marked by recurrent attacks (seizures) of abnormal nervous impulses.
gait Manner of walking.
ganglion Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system; plural is ganglia.
glial cell Nervous system cell that is supportive and connective in function; Astrocyte, microglial cell, and ependymal cell.
glioblastoma Rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain.
glioblastoma multiforme Highly malignant brain tumor composed of glial cells (astrocytes).
gyrus Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum.
hemiparesis Slight paralysis of the right or left half of the body.
hemiplegia Paralysis of the right or left half of the body.
herpes zoster Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves.
HIV encephalopathy Disease of the brain (dementia) caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
Huntington disease Hereditary disorder affecting the cerebrum and involving abrupt, involuntary, jerking movements, and mental deterioration in later stages.
hydrocephalus Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles (canals) of the brain.
hypalgesia Diminished sensitivity to pain.
hyperesthesia Excessive sensitivity or feeling, especially of the skin in response to touch or pain.
hyperkinesis Excessive movement.
hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
ictal event Pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as the convulsion of an epileptic seizure.
intrathecal Pertaining to within the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
leptomeningitis Inflammation of the two thinner membranes (arachnoid and pia mater) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
lumbar puncture Withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space between two lumbar vertebrae; spinal tap.
magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic and radio waves create an image of an organ three planes of the body. The brain and spinal cord can be imaged to detect lesions.
medulla oblongata Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.
meningeal Pertaining to meninges.
meninges Three membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
meningioma Tumor (benign) of the meninges.
meningitis Inflammation of the meninges.
meningocele Hernia of the meninges through a defect or space between vertebrae, a form of spina bifida cystica.
microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
migraine A severe headache, often unilateral, and sometimes is accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
motor nerves Carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles.
multiple sclerosis Chronic neurologic disorder marked by destruction of the myelin sheath on neuronal axons in the CNS and replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue.
myasthenia gravis Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles.
myelin sheath Fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell.
myelogram X-ray record (with contrast) of the spinal cord.
myelomeningocele Congenital hernia (protrusion) of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect (gap) in the vertebral column. This defect is often associated with spina bifida.
myoneural Pertaining to muscle and nerve.
narcolepsy Sudden seizures of sleep.
nerve Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses.
neuralgia Nerve pain.
neurasthenia Lack of strength in nerves; a feeling of weakness and exhaustion.
neuroglia Supporting cells (stroma) of the nervous system; glial cells.
neuron Nerve cell.
neuropathy Disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system.
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell.
occlusion Blockage or obstruction.
oligodendroglial cell Glial (neuroglial) cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of a neuron.
palliative Relieving symptoms, but not curative.
palsy Paralysis.
paraplegia Paralysis of the lower part of the body and both legs.
parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions, such as heart rate, breathing, and the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
parenchyma Essential, functioning cells of any organ. Neurons (nerve cells) are the parenchyma of the nervous system.
paresis Slight paralysis.
paresthesia Abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause. Examples are tingling, numbness or prickling sensations.
Parkinson disease Degeneration of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter, dopamine in the brain; leads to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement.
peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
pia mater Thin, delicate, and innermost membrane of the meninges.
plexus Network of nerves, outside of the central nervous system; brachial, cervical, and lumbosacral plexuses are examples.
poliomyelitis Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
polyneuritis Inflammation of many nerves.
pons Part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain. The pons connects the upper and lower portions of the brain.
positron emission tomography Computerized radiologic procedure using radioactive glucose or oxygen to image the metabolic activity of cells, such as brain cells.
quadriplegia Paralysis of all four limbs; both arms and both legs.
radiculitis Inflammation of a spinal nerve root.
radiculopathy Disease of a spinal nerve root.
receptor Organ that receives nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves that carry the stimulation to the brain and spinal cord; skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds.
sciatic nerve Extends from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain along the course of the nerve.
sensory nerves Carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves.
shingles Viral (herpes zoster) illness that affects peripheral nerves; produces blisters and pain on the skin overlying the path of peripheral nerves.
spina bifida Congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts; spinal cord and meninges may herniate through the vertebral gap.
spinal nerves Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin.
stereotactic radiosurgery Use of a specialized instrument using three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
stimulus Agent of change (light, sound, and touch) that evokes a response.
stroma Connective and supportive tissue of an organ.
subdural hematoma Collection of blood in the space below the dura mater surrounding the brain.
sulcus Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that activate responses in times of stress; heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure are affected.
synapse Space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscle and glandular cells.
syncopal Pertaining to syncope (fainting).
syncope Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness.
thalamic Pertaining to the thalamus.
thalamus Main relay center of the brain; located in the central region or diencephalon of the brain.
thrombosis Abnormal condition of clot formation in a blood vessel.
tic Involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face.
tonic-clonic seizure A major seizure affecting the brain in epilepsy; grand-mal seizure.
Tourette syndrome Neurologic disorder characterized by multiple facial and other body tics.
transient ischemic attack Fleeting episode of ischemia (holding back blood) in the brain.
trigeminal neuralgia Flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve). The trigeminal nerve has branches to the eye, upper jaw and lower jaw.
vagal Pertaining to the vagus nerve.
vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve with branches to the chest and abdominal organs.
ventricles of the brain Fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) filled canals in the brain.
Created by: mtathome