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Kasey2004 Flashcards

Chapter 11

central nervous system(CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord and is covered by the bones of the skull and vertebral column
peripheral nervous system(PNS) involves the cranial and spinal nerves
autonomic nervous system(ANS) supplies nerves to all of the internal organs and is responsible for controlling the involuntary responses such as heart rate or blood flow
neurology study of the nervous system and its disorders
neurologist physician involved in the care of the nervous system disorders and diseases
thromb/o clot
cephal/o head
quadr/i four
rhiz/o root
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebellum
dendr/o branching
cyt/o cell
narc/o sleep
encephal/o brain
gli/o neuroglia, nerve cell
mening/o meninges
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
neur/o nerve
olig/o few, diminished
thec/o sheath
ventricul/o ventricle
medull/o medulla oblongata
neur/i nerve tissue
kinesi/o movement
dipl/o double
caus/o burn
hemi half
epi above, over
para around or abnormal
poly many
sub beneath, below
dura hard
echo sound
a without
an without
brady slow
dys difficult
hyper excessive
algia pain
ia condition
oma tumor
algesia sensitivity to pain
praxia activity
al pertaining to
opia vision
lexia reading
paresis partial paralysis
plegia paralysis
logist one who specializes in the study of
logy the study of
osis condition, process
tomy process of cutting
phasia speech
asthenia without feeling or sensation
neuron receives and transmits the nerve impulses
afferent neurons carry impulses toward the brain and spinal cord
connecting neurons carry impulses from one neuron to another
efferent neurons carry impulses away from the brain
dendrites short branches of a cell body of a neuron that receive and conduct impulses to the cell body
axon the extensions of a cell body that sends impulses away from the nerve cell
myelin - myelin sheath white fatty covering on the axon
synapse small space found between the neurons
neuroglia supportive cells of the nervous system and they do not conduct impulses throughout the body
nerves bundles of fibers that connect the body organs with the central nervous system
cerebral spinal fluid(CSF) clear colorless fluid which flows throughout the brain and spinal cord to cushion the organs from injury
meninges three protective membrane layers that enclose the brain and spinal cord
dura mater outer most layer of membrane that protects the brain and spinal cord
arachnoid the middle layer of membrane that protects the brain and spinal cord
pia mater protective membrane layer nearest the brain and spinal cord
brain one of the largest organs in the body, it is contained within the skull, part of the central nervous system
cerebrum largest part of the brain; controls sensory activities such as memory, consciousness, emotions, judgement, and voluntary movement; has four lobes
frontal lobe one of the lobes of the cerebrum; influences motor function
parietal lobe lobe of the brain responsible for sensation
occipital lobe lobe of the brain responsible for vision
temporal lobe lobe of the brain that controls hearing and smell
cerebellum second largest section of the brain which connects to the brainstem; functions to maintain muscle tone, controls balance and coordinates movement
brainstem continuous with spinal cord; divided into three parts
midbrain upper region of the brainstem responsible for reflexes in the cranial nerves
pons middle part of the brainstem which regulates respirations
medulla oblongata lowest part of the brainstem that controls cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor functions
thalamus receives and relays all sensory stimuli to the cerebral cortex
olfactory involving the sense of smell
hypothalamus brain region that acts as regulator or thermostat of body temperature, appetite and digestion, water balance, sleeping and waking cycles, emotions, and regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and respirations
corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres of the brain
spinal cord thick cord of nervous tissue that contains 31 pairs of spinal nerves
somatic nervous system responsible for the voluntary responses, such as walking and talking
sympathetic nervous system engages the bodies response to emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system part of the autonomic nervous system, assists in returning the body to normal after a stressful situation has occurred
brain abscess accumulation of pus located in the brain tissue
aphasia inability to communicate through speech due to injury or disease to part of the brain
cephalalgia pain in the head, headache
dysphasia difficult speech
hemiparesis slight or partial paralysis on one half of the body
hemiplegia paralysis of one half of the body
narcolepsy uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep
neuritis inflammation of a nerve
paresthesia sensation of numbness or tingling
syncope fainting
alzheimer's disease progressive deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning
ALS - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis severe weakening of the motoneurons of the spinal cord and cortex, leading to progressive paralysis
bell's palsy temporary or permanent weakness/paralysis of muscles in the face on one side
CVA -cerebrovascular accident death of a specific portion of the brain tissue
epilepsy syndrome of recurring episodes of seizures
hematoma collection of blood within tissues
MS - multiple sclerosis degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS
parkinson's disease degenerative, slow, progressive deterioration of neurons in the brain stem
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
meningitis inflammation of the meninges of the brain/spinal cord
herpes zoster, shingles acute viral infection with inflammation of the skin of a spinal or cranial nerve pathway
TIA - transient ischemic attack temporary interruption of the blood supply to a portion of the brain
coma deep state of unconsciousness/no responses
amnesia disturbance in memory, inability to remember past experiences
hemorrhagic stroke - bleed leak or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
EEG electroencephalography, recording the electrical activity of the brain
LP - spinal tap lumbar puncture, insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space to withdraw cerebrospinal fluid
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief
myelogram x-ray record of the spinal cord and spinal cavity
neurectomy surgical excision of a nerve or nerve fibers
echoencephalography ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain
Romberg test to evaluate cerebellar function and balance
brain scan nuclear scanning of the brain after intravenous injection of radiosotopes
craniotomy surgical procedure to make an opening in the skull
nerve block injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve to eliminate sensation to the area
rhizotomy surgical resection of a spinal nerve root to relieve pain
Created by: Kasey2004