|After Maya gave her friend the password to a protected Web site, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her ________ memory. ||short-term|
|The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates ||effortful processing.|
|Students who review previously learned course material at various times throughout a semester to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of ||the spacing effect.|
|At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she remembers only the names of the first three and last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates ||the serial position effect|
|Employing the single word HOMES to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of
||a mnemonic device|
|Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the ||amygdala|
|The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be ||retrieval cues|
|During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates
|In an effort to remember how to spell “rhinoceros,” Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as
|Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
||the spacing effect|
|Shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately. This best illustrates ||a recency effect|
|An understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for ||rehearsal|
|Combining individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of
|Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory best illustrates
|To recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was applying the process of
|A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of
|Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.
|The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
|Automatic processing occurs without
|The effortful processing of information
||can become automatic through practice|
|The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on
|The process of encoding refers to
||getting information into memory|
|Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________. ||retention; acquisition|
|While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates ||retrieval failure.|
|Semantic encoding refers to the processing of ||meanings.|
|Which procedure is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie people's intelligence scores?
|Managers who want to foster creativity in the workplace should try to increase the ________ of their employees.
|When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates ||emotional intelligence.|
|The widely used American revision of Alfred Binet's original intelligence test was developed by ||Lewis Terman|
|People who score high on intelligence tests exhibit ||more neural plasticity and faster brain-wave responses to simple stimuli than do those with lower scores.|
|A test designed to assess whether newly graduated medical students should be granted the legal right to practice medicine would most likely be considered a(n) ________ test. ||achievement|
|Before publishing her test of musical aptitude, Professor Reed first administered the test to a representative sample of people. This was most clearly necessary for test ||standardization|
|When retested on the WAIS, people's second scores generally match their first scores quite closely. This indicates that the test has a high degree of ||reliability.|
|If course exams assess a student's mastery of a representative sample of course material, they are said to
||have content validity|
|Comparing the academic performance of those whose scores are extremely low on intelligence tests with those whose scores are extremely high is an effective way to highlight the tests'
|Increasing years of schooling over the last half century have most likely contributed to
||the Flynn effect|
|The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence.
|Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as
|Superior performance on the WAIS is most likely to be indicative of
||Sternberg's concept of analytical intelligence|
|University students who focus on the interest and challenge of their schoolwork rather than on simply meeting deadlines and securing good grades are especially likely to demonstrate
|The first modern test of intelligence was developed in
|A 6-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have a mental age of
|A high school counselor gave Amy a test designed to predict whether she could learn to become a successful architect. Amy most likely took a(n) ________ test.
|Psychologists use ________ to assess individuals' mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others.
|Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n)
||mental ability to learn from experience.|
|L. L. Thurstone identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities, including word fluency, memory, and inductive reasoning. He claimed that word fluency
||involves a different dimension of intelligence from that of reasoning.|
|Howard Gardner identified a total of ________ intelligences. ||eight|
|Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates
|The concept of emotional intelligence is most likely to be criticized for ||extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of skills|
|After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of
|Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of
|A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.
|The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger.
|To lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of
|Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to
||cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness.|
|In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)
||decrease in their metabolic rate.|
|When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs.
|A completely focused state of consciousness resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills is called
|For each performance review, Professor Donnell is evaluated by her students, colleagues, department chair, and research assistants. This best illustrates
|Assessing the impact of different management styles on the motivation and productivity of employees best illustrates the professional concerns of
|Managers who build teamwork and effectively mediate employee conflicts are said to excel in
|By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to
|Need is to ________ as drive is to ________.
||food deprivation; hunger|
|Orexin is an appetite hormone secreted by the
|The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of
|Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstra ||anorexia nervosa.|
|According to health psychologists, which of the following would be the BEST advice or encouragement to offer someone who wants to lose excess weight?
||“Reduce your weight gradually over a period of several months.”|
|Our ________ is said to be a gauge of how socially accepted we feel.
|Work is most likely to be satisfying for employees if it is associated with
||the experience of flow|
|Personnel psychology is one of the main subfields of
|Compared with ineffective managers, those who are effective are more likely to
||celebrate employee productivity by providing them with recognition and rewards.|
|Motivation is defined by psychologists as ||a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.|
|Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors? ||instinct|
|A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n) ||instinct|
|The basic components of emotion are
||expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience|
|Who suggested that “we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble”?
|The James-Lange theory of emotion states that ||to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.|
|Cassandra's mother told her, “You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside.” This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion ||James-Lange|
|According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body's arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the
|The two-factor theory of emotion was proposed by
||Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer|
|According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________. ||a cognitive label; physical arousal|
|Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?
||the James-Lange theory|
|A lie detector test is used to monitor a person's
|The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the
|By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces, researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the ________.
|The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of ________ into the bloodstream.
|Type A personality is to Type B personality as ________ is to _______.
|After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior best illustrates
|The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through
|If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the
||facial feedback effect.|
|The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by
|People tend to use emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping strategies when they
||believe they cannot change a stressful situation.|
|Aerobic exercise ________ the body's production of serotonin and ________ its production of the endorphins.
|Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
||Andre, a competitive, easily-angered journalist.|
|The parasympathetic nervous system is to the sympathetic nervous system as ________ is to ________.
||contraction of pupils; dilation of pupils|
|Test performance is typically ________ when physiological arousal is ________.
|Thaddeus will play a violin solo at his school tomorrow. His musical performance is likely to be ________ if his physiological arousal during the performance is ________. ||best; moderate|
|The text defines stress as
the process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges.|
|The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the ||body's response to prolonged stress.|