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Cardiology refers to a medical specialty which: studies electrocardiograms, the heart, and treats diseases of the heart.
Electrocardiogram or ECG is: a key test in diagnosing & identifying heart disease, records the electrical activity of the heart, & can be performed by a tech/nurse w/ proper training.
The machine used to obtain electrical information from the heart is called: electrocardiograph or ECG machine
Job skills for the ECG technician include: knowledge of anatomy & physiology of the heart; ability to prioritize tasks & activities by importance; responds to patients' emotional needs.
All healthcare workers must abide by certain rules which: protect a patient's confidentiality & dignity; are established in the Patient's Bill of Rights.
Crises arise everyday in clinics and hospitals and require technicians to: act quickly & prioritize activities; help the nurses & doctors w/in the limits of his/her training
When disagreements arise between healthcare workers: each person should be allowed to explain his/her actions & the principles of conflict resolution and mediation applied.
If conflict resolution is used then: communication will improve; patients will get better service
The ECG tech can provide a good quality service to patients and be an excellent employee: by having and developing good communication skills; by cultivating empathy and compassion; by remaining flexible
The healthcare environment is busy and stressful; the technician can decrease his/her personal stress by: getting enough exercise and rest; eating properly.
The cardiac patient has diseases of the: heart
Cardiac risk factors: are conditions which increase the probability of developing heart disease
Cardiac risk factors include: age, smoking,family health history, male gender
Modifiable cardiac risk factors include: smoking & diet
Losing weight and exercising three times a week are examples of: A modifiable risk factors; changing lifestyle and decreasing risk of heart disease.
Angina is: the result of ischemia; chest pain, squeezing, pressure, and/or left arm pain; a symptom of heart disease; the result of CAD.
The importance of the coronary arteries is: they bring oxygen rich blood to the heart tissue
Atherosclerosis is a disease: which involves accumulation of fatty deposits within the artery wall.
All tissue in the body, including the heart require: oxygen to function
A heart attack is: aka myocardial infarction; caused by complete blockage of a coronary artery; caused by fatty deposits, plaque, & blood clots; a cardiac disease or event.
Ischemia means: lack of blood and oxygen being supplied to a part of the body.
Infarction means: death of tissue and cells caused by complete blockage of arteries.
PTCA is: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
CABG is: coronary artery bypass grafting
A difference between CABG and PTCA is: CABG requires open heart surgery and PTCA is a radiology technique that doesn't require surgery.
What are the pieces of equipment needed to perform a blood pressure? Stethoscope, spygmomanometer
The top number of the blood pressure reading is called: systolic
The bottom number of the blood pressure reading is called: diastolic
Blood pressure is measured in units called: mmhg
Factors that can result in an inconsistent blood pressure reading include: diet, exercise, stress, improper cuff size
3 situations that would prevent you from obtaining a blood pressure using a particular arm: IV or Heplock is place; Dialysis or Fistula; Same side as Mastectomy.
T/F: The main organs of the cardiopulmonary syste are the heart and blood vessels. False
T/F: The heart is a double-sided pump. True
T/F: The ventricles function as reservoirs for blood. False
T/F: Contractility is an electrical function of the heart. False
The upper chambers of the heart are known as the ___ and the lower chambers of the heart are known as the ____. atrias; ventricles.
Name four valves of the heart: pulmonic; mitral; tricuspid; aortic.
___ carry blood Away from the heart. Arteries
___ carries blood back to the heart. Veins
Movement of blood from the right ventricle to the lungs is called the: Pulmonary Circulation
Cardiac muscle tissue receives its blood supply from the: Coronary arteries
Automaticity is the ability of cardiac cells to: Initiate their own electrical impulse
The ability of cardiac cells to transmit an electrical impulse is: Conductivity
The inferior and superior vena cava deliver oxygen poor blood from the rest of the body to: the right atrium
Oxygen rich blood is delivered by the pulmonary veins from the lungs to the: left atrium
Oxygen poor blood is pumped from the right atria to: right ventricle
Oxygen rich blood is pumped from the left ventricle and into: the aorta
Oxygen poor blood is pumped from the right ventricle into: the pulmonary artery
The purpose of the heart valves is to: Encourage forward flow of blood and prevent backward leakage into the previous chamber
The aorta receives oxygen rich blood from the left ventricle and delivers blood to the: the brain; the arms and legs; the kidneys; the liver.
The flow of the blood through the heart is in this order: vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta.
The SA node or sinoatrial node: is located in the upper right atrium; is the pacemaker of the heart.
The AV junction or the atrio-ventricular junction: located in the lower right atrium; is a backup pacemaker that will pace the heart if the SA node fails to do so.
The electrical conduction in the heart: occurs before the mechanical contraction
The cardiac cycle is: the timed events of the electrical conduction that results in mechanical action and produces a blood pressure and pulse.
The electrical impulse is delivered to the ventricles via the: Bundle branches and Purkinje fibers
The electrical impulse of the heart is recorded by the: ECG
Systole means: the heart muscle is contracting
Diastole means: the heart muscle is at rest and relaxing
The atrial kick is: The additional 30% of blood pushed into the ventricle when the atria contract
Cyanosis is: Bluish-gray color of the lips, skin, and nail beds caused by a lack of oxygen
Electrical current through the tissues is caused by: Movement of electrolytes across a semi-permeable membrane.
Polarization is a state in which the cells are: in the resting state during which time there is a low probability of an electrical discarge.
Depolarization is: the state when a threshold is reached and the electrolytes move across the semi-permeable membrane and a current is discharged.
Repolarization is: electrolytes move across the semi-permeable membrane back to the resting state.
The events of polarization, depolarization, and repolarization are represented on: ECG recording
The EKG is a recording of the electrical waveforms onto: graph paper
On the EKG recording, polarization is represented by: the baseline or isoelectric line
The depolarization of the heart occurs in a synchronized manner in this sequence: SA Node, atria, AV node, bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
Atrial depolarization is represented on the ECG recording by: the P wave
Atrial repolarization is represented on the ECG recording by: it is not visible
Ventricular depolarization is represented on the EKG recording by: the QRS complex
Ventricular repolarization is represented on the ECG recording by: the T wave
The recording of the electrical events of the P wave, QRS complex, T wave, and baseline is: done routinely by recording the EKG; able to be analyzed and can help in the diagnosis of cardiac disease.
The refractory period: occurs during repolarization; is when the heart cannot respond to an electrical stimulus.
The U wave is: a normal variant and occurs at the end of the T wave.
After the P wave, or atrial depolarization, then: the atria contract.
After the QRS complex: the ventricles contract.
The electrical impulses of the heart become an ECG tracing through: sensors or electrodes placed on the chest, attached by cables to the EKG machine which translates electrical information into the mechanical action that creates the waveforms.
The horizontal axis on the ECG graph paper represent: time
The vertical axis on the EKG graph paper represent: voltage
Indicate the inherent rate for the sinoatrial (SA)node: 60-100
Indicate the inherent rate for the atrioventricular (AV) node: 40-60
Indicate the inherent rate for the ventricles: 20-40
The EKG monitor shows: the electrical impulses through the heart, not the actual contraction of the heart muscle.
The P wave represents the depolarization of both the right and left: atria
The 12 lead EKG is helpful in diagnosing heart disease and conditions including: MI, Ischemia, Pericarditis, Ventricular hypertrophy.
A doctor or nurse may order an EKG on patients experiencing: chest pain or tightness, fainting, and shortness of breath.
When preparing a patient for an ECG: explain the procedure and the equipment; make it a habit to identify the patient and verify the orders.
The electrode: has a gel coating that enhances skin contact & improves conduction of electrical impulses through the skin.
The electrode: has a tab that allows the cables of the EKG machine to be attached to it.
The electrode: are placed at specific anatomical locations on the body.
The electrocardiograph detects: electrical activity of the heart.
Calibration means: setting a machine to a standardized scale to allow comparison of the results.
On the EKG machine the "filter" acts to: diminish electrical activity that may be present in the environment and that might interfere with the tracing.
Artifact on the ECG recording indicates: poor connections, muscle movement, or electrical interference.
The isoelectric line: is a flat straight line with no waveforms present; means that no electrical activity is detected.
The anatomical landmarks crucial when performing a standard 12 lead ECG are the: right & left sternal border, midclavicular line, 4th & 5th intercostals spaces, anterior & midaxillary lines.
The standard limb leads are bipolar leads and are: created by electrodes placed on the arms and legs.
The augmented limb leads are unipolar and are: increased in size by 50%.
V leads are: also called the chest leads or precordial leads; also unipolar leads.
V1 is located at the: 4th intercostals space at the right sternal border.
V2 is located at the: 4th intercostals space at the left sternal border.
V3 is located at the: halfway point between v2 and v4.
V4 is located at the: 5th intercostals space at the midclavicular line.
V5 is located at the: level of V4 at the anterior axillary line.
V6 is located at the: level of V4 at the midaxillary line.
Leads II, III, and aVF look at the: inferior wall of the heart.
Leads V1, V2, and V3 look at the: anterior wall and intraventricular septum.
The electrocardiograph machine was developed by: Einthoven
The surface of the heart is divided into six sections: anterior wall, anteroseptal wall, lateral wall, inferior wall, posterior wall, apical wall.
Procedure for obtaining an EKG includes: wash hands, identify the patient, and place electrodes in proper anatomical locations.
The term "lead" refers to a particular "view" of the heart and: the cables connected to the electrodes.
One large box on the EKG graph paper equals: 0.20 sec
One small box on the EKG graph paper equals: 0.04 sec
The steps in a systemic rhythm analysis: make general observation about rhythms, determine the HR, determine if the rhythm is regular, determine whether there is a P wave for every QRS complex, measure the waveforms.
On the EKG, time is measured along: the horizontal axis.
Hash marks at the top of a rhythm strip occur at intervals of: every 15 boxes or every 3 sec.
Calipers are: useful in measuring waveforms; used in determining regularity of a rhythm; a metal tool with two arms that adjust & lock into place.
If calipers are not used, how can you determine regularity: place the edge of a blank paper over the tracing, mark the R to R interval for 2 clycles, & move it down 1 cycle to see if the marks line up with the next R to R cycle.
There are many ways to determine HR including: counting the QRS complexes during a 6 second period and multiplying by 10; count the large boxes between one R to R interval & divide that number into 300.
When measuring the PR interval remember: start the measurement at the beginning of the P wave & end at the beginning of the QRS; the PR interval is normally 0.12-0.20 sec.
When measuring the QRS complex: start at the beginning of the QRS & end when the waveform returns to the baseline; the QRS has several morphologies including a mostly positive waveform as well as a mostly negative waveform.
The QRS complex normally is: 0.04-0.10 sec
Characteristics of NSR include: there is a P wave for every QRS complex; the rhythm is regular.
Variations of NSR include: sinus bradycardia and sinus arrhythmia
Criteria for sinus bradycardia includes: HR less than 60 bpm and P wave for every QRS complex.
Criteria for tachycardia includes: HR greater than 100 bpm.
Criteria for sinus arryhthmia includes: slightly irregular, varies with respiration.
Sinus tachycardia is a normal physiologic response to: exercise, pain, fever and blood loss.
Sinus bradycardia is normal and may be: a response to medication, a response to rest or sleep, a byproduct of athletic training.
The baseline or isoelectric line is: the absence of electrical activity.
T/F: When interpreting a rhythem strip, it is important to check wave formation, rhythm and rate. True
T/F: The SA node generates an electrical impulse at a rate of 60-100 bpm. True
T/F: Sinus bradycardia has a rate greater than 100 bpm. False
T/F: A PAC is an atrial contraction that occurs later than the next expected complex of the underlying rhythm. True
T/F: In sinus arrhythmia, the heart rate increases with inspirations and decreases with expirations. True
T/F: Ventricular tachycardia is a dysrhythmia that originates from many ventricular sites. True
T/F: Asystole occurs when there is no electrical activity in the atria or the ventricles. False
T/F: If two PVCs occur in a row, it is called ventricular tachycardia. True
T/F: Multifocal PVCs mean that the PVCs are coming from the same location. False
T/F: Bigeminy PVCs occur every other beat. True
T/F: An agonal rhythm is the heart's last cry for help. False
An extra atrial contraction followed by a QRS complex that occurs earlier than predicted is: Premature atrial contraction
PAC's that occur every other beat are called: Bigeminy
The reduction in cardiac output that occurs with SVT can cause: Syncope, Lightheadedness, and Dizzyness.
Atrial Flutter is characterized by: Flutter waves with saw-toothed appearance.
Atrial Fibrillation is characterized by: an irregular, irregularity; P waves being replaced by fibrillatory waves; and a loss of the "Atrial Kick"
A patient with AFib can be converted to Sinus Rhythm by: medication and cardioversion.
In Atrial Flutter and Atrial Fibrillation, which waveform cannot be seen? P wave
Paroxysmal means: sudden onset and sudden end.
Special conductive tissue located in the lower right atrium. AV node
Carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. pulmonary artery
Special conductive tissue that extends into the right and left ventricle. bundle branches
Receives blood from the left side of hte heart to be distributed to the rest of the body. aorta
Pacemaker of the heart. SA node
Lower chambers or main pumping chambers. ventricles
Relating to the lungs. pulmonary
Conductive tissue leading from the AV node to the ventricular septum between the right and left ventricle. bundle of His
Large vein returning deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart. vena cava
The resting phase of the heart. diastole
Conductive tissue that transmits electrical impulses from the bundle branches to the ventricular tissue. Purkinje fibers
Relating to the system of blood vessels. vascular
Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart. pulmonary vein
The upper chambers. atria
The time during which the heart is contracting or working. systole
The series of electrical and mechanical events that comprise each heart beat. cardiac cycle
Very small charged particle. ion
A heart test that uses ultrasound waves to obtain pictures of heart structures such as the valves and heart chambers. echocardiogram
Decreased blood flow to the tissue, resulting in decreased levels of oxygen and nutrients. ischemia
Blood vessels that bring oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. coronary arteries
Death of heart muscle tissue caused by blockages in the coronary arteries. MI
Chest pain caused by the decrease of blood flow to the heart muscle. angina
Relating the heart. cardiac
Disturbance in the heart rhythm. arrhythmia
A procedure in which dye is injected into the coronary arteries and a moving x-ray is taken to detect blockages. angiogram
Heart disease caused by blockages in the coronary arteries. CAD
Lead I Records the electrical current through the heart, from the right arm to the the left arm.
Lead I RA Sensor is negative; LA Sensor is positive.
Lead I The heart is viewed from the positive electrode, or LA, which views the lateral wall of the heart.
Lead II Records the electrical current downward through the heart's long axis, from the right arm to the left leg.
Lead II RA Sensor is negative; LA Sensor is positive.
Lead II The heart is viewed from the positive electrode, or LL, which iews the inferior wall of the heart.
Lead III Records the electrical current from the left arm to the left leg.
Lead III LA Sensor is negative; LL Sensor is positive.
Lead III The heart is viewed from the positive electrode, or LL, which views the inferior wall of the heart from another angle.
aVF Top; Positive LL looks at the inferior wall of the heart.
aVR Left of Heart; Positive RA looks at the top of the heart.
aVL Right of Heart; Positive LA looks at the superior lateral wall of the heart.
V1, V2, and V3 These leads look at the interventricular septum and anterior wall.
V4 This lead looks at the anterior wall.
V5 and V6 These leads look at the apical and low lateral walls.
Created by: periwinkletc