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LOM ch 11

LOM Ch 11 - Cardiovascular system

angiogram record (x-ray) of a blood vessel
angioplasty surgical repair of a blood vessel
aortic stenosis narrowing of the aorta
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
arterial anastomosis surgical connection between arteries
arteriography process of recording (x-ray) arteries after injecting contrast material
endarterectomy removal of the inner lining of the artery (when it is filled with plaque)
atheroma collection of fatty material in an artery
atrial pertaining to an upper chamber of the heart
atrioventricular pertaining to an atrium and ventricle (upper and lower chambers of the heart)
brachial artery artery that branches from the aorta to bring blood to the arm
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy disease of heart muscle
bradycardia condition of slow heartbeat
tachycardia condition of fast heartbeat
hypercholesterolemia condition of excessive cholesterol in the blood
coronary arteries arteries branch from the aorta to bring oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
cyanosis abnormal condition of bluish discoloration due to poor oxygenation of blood
myxoma benign tumor of the heart. The tumor is embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue
hypoxia condition of decreased oxygen in inspired air; as occurs in high altitudes
pericardiocentesis surgical puncture of the membrane surrounding the heart (to remove fluid)
phlebotomy incision of vein
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein with clots
arrythmia arrhythmia and dysrhythmia are used to describe abnormal heart rhythm
sphygmomanometer instrument used to measure blood pressure
stethoscope instrument to examine the chest
thrombolysis destruction of clots
valvuloplasty surgical repair of a valve
mitral valvulitis inflammation of the mitral valve
valvotomy incision of a valve
vasoconstriction narrowing of vessels
vasodilation widening of vessels
vascular pertaining to blood vessels
venous pertaining to veins
venipuncture incision of a vein for phlebotomy or to start an intravenous infusion
interventricular septum the wall separating the ventricles of the heart (lower chambers)
anoxia without oxygen
aorta largest artery in the body
arteriole Small artery
artery Largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body
atherectomy Removal of a fatty mass in a vessel
atherosclerosis Hardening of arteries with deposit of fatty substance
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them
atrioventricular node (AV node) Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses bass through
atrium (plural atria) One of two upper chambers of the heart
capillary Smallest blood vessel, Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls
carbon dioxide Gas (waste released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation
cardiogenic shock Results from failure of the heart in its pumping action. Shock is circulatory failure associated with inadequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
deoxygenated blood Blood that is oxygen poor
diastole Relaxation (resting) phase of the heartbeat
electrocardiogram Record of the electricity flowing through the heart. It is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, and T wave
endocardium Inner lining of the heart
endothelium Innermost lining of blood vessels
mitral valve Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
myocardium Muscular, middle layer of the heart
normal sinus rhythm heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute
oxygen GAs that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
pacemaker (sinoarterial node) Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat
pericardium Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart
pulmonary artery Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs.
pulmonary circulation Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary valve Valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum (plural: septa) Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria and right and left ventricles
systemic circulation Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart to the body tissues
systole Contraction (working) phase of the heartbeat
tricuspid valve Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three leaflets, or cusps
valve Structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction
vein Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from the body tissues and lungs back to the heart
vena cava (plural: venae cavae) Largest vein in the body. They return blood to the right atrium of the heart
ventricle One of two lower chambers of the heart
venule Small vein
Acute Coronary syndromes Unstable angina and myocardial infarction, which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries
Angina Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia
Auscultation Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope
bruit Abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ
cardiac arrest Sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action.
cardiac tamponade Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
claudication Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest
embolus Clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel
infarction Area of dead tissue
nitroglycerin Nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
occlusion Closure of a blood vessel due to blockage
palpitations Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S)
patent open
pericardial friction rub Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart
petechiae Small, pinpoint hemorrhages
thrill Vibration felt over an area or turmoil in blood flow
vegetations Clumping of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves
dysrhythmia Used to describe an abnormal heart rhythm
pallor paleness
ischemia blood flow is decreased or stopped (held back)
statins drugs used to lower cholesterol levels
beta-blockers drugs used to reduce the force and speed of heartbeat and to lower blood pressure
nitroglycerin a nitrate drug used to treat acute attacks of angina – given sublingually – a vasodilator that increases coronary blood flow and lowers blood pressure
ACE inhibitors drugs used to reduce high blood pressure and risk of future heart attack – angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
calcium channel blockers drugs given to relax muscle in blood vessels
stent An expandable tubular device (surgically placed) within a narrowed artery to improve blood flow and maintain opening
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
-constriction narrow (to tighten)
-dilation widening; stretching; expanding
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-emia blood condition
-eurysm widening
-genic produced by or in
-globin protein
-graphy process of recording
-itis inflammation
-ium structure; tissue
-lysis separation; breakdown; destruction; loosening
-megaly enlargement
-oxia oxygen
-phoresis carrying; transmission
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhage -rrhagia bursting forth (of blood)
-sclerosis hardening
-stenosis tightening; stricture
-stenosis tightening; stricture (narrowing)
-tomy incision
-tropic pertaining to stimulating
-tropin stimulate; act on
-ule little; small
-um structure; tissue; thing
a-, an- no; not; without
brady- slow
de- lack of; down; less; removal of
dys- painful; difficult; abnormal
end- endo- in; within
hemo- blood
hyper- too much; above; excessive
hypo- deficient; below; under; less than normal
inter- between
per- through
peri- surrounding
tachy- fast
tetra- four
tri- three
angi/o vessel
aort/o aorta
arter/o arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole (small artery)
arti/o atrium (upper heart chambers)
ather/o yellowish plaque (fatty substance)
axill/o armpit
brachi/o arm
cardi/o heart
cholesterol/o cholesterol
coron/o heart (Latin: crown)
corpor/o body
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
electr/o electricity
idi/o unknown; individual; distinct
isch/o hold back; back
my/o muscle
myx/o mucus
necr/o death
ox/o oxygen
phleb/o vein
pulmon/o lung
radi/o x-rays; radioactivity
rrhythm/o rhythm
son/o sound
sphygm/o pulse
sten/o narrowing
stern/o breastbone
steth/o chest
thromb/o clot
valv/o valvul/o valve
varic/o varicose veins
vas/o vessel
ven/o vein
ventricul/o ventricle
venul/o venule (small vein)
par- abnormal
oxysm/o sudden
paroxysmal occurring periodically and episodically
tele/o distant
Created by: mscardenas