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Cardiopulmonary Term

Glossary of Terms used in Cardiopulmonary Pulmonary PT

Airway resistance Resistance of the flow of air in the lungs, created by the bronchioles
Aneurysm An abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; due to a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel
Angina Severe chest pain caused by relative deficiency of O2 supply to heart muscle. Manifestation of myocardial ischemia. S/S include: steady severe pain in heart region; pale ashen or livid face; pulse variable; usually quick & tense. Attacks last ~30 min
Antiarrhythmic medications Used to control or prevent irregular cardiac rhythms
Anticoagulants Delays of prevents blood coagulation. Pts on this medication bleed easily. Caution must be taken with shaking, percussion & handling
Apnea Temporaty cessation of breathing. May result from reduction in stim uli to the respiratory center. Occurs in young infants or adults with restrictive problems
Apneusis Abnormal respiration marked by sustained inspiratory effort. Caused by surgical removal of the upper portion of the pons
Arrhythmias Irregular heart beats
Atherosclerosis Deposits of cholesterol. Causes narrowing of the arteries, compromising the inner layers of blood vessels
Arteriosclerosis The arterial walls thicken and lose their elasticity. Commonly called "hardening of the arteries"
Assisted cough Used with patients that can only produce a weak cough. The pt inhales deeply & as they attempt a cough, the PT uses their hands to push inward & upward assisting in the exhalation of air (similar to Heimlich Maneuver)
Asthma An obstructive airway disorder common in young children that can be exacerbated by thepresence of specific allergens
Atelectasis Collapse of one or more lobes of the lung
Atrial septal defect A congenital heart defect leaving an opening between the left and right atria
Atropine A respiratory stimulant used to decrease spasms of involuntary muscles and decrease secretions
Auscultation Use of a stethescope to listen to the sounds of the heart and lungs. Utilized to assess abnormal respiratory sounds, and to measure a patient's BP
Beta-blockers Medications used to decrease HR, BP, contraction and stroke volume of heart & decrease O2 demands. Agents are utilized to treat: hypertension, angina, specific cardiac arrhythmias; post myocardial infarctions
Bradycardia A slow heartbeat characterized by a pulse rate of below 60 beats per minute
Bradypnea Abnormally slow breathing
Bronchiectasis Chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection usually involving the lower portion of the lung
Bronchitis An obstructive lung disorder resulting in inflammation of the mucus membrane of the bronchial airways, results in a productive cough
Bronchodilators Usually an inhaled medication to relax smooth muscles (bronchial), and open the airways
Cardiac glycosides Medications used to increase contractility of the heart and decrease the heart rate
Cardiac output The amount of blood discharged from the left or right ventricle per minute. _____________ is determined by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate
Cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) The process of ventilating and circulating blood for a patient in cardiopulmonary arrest
Chest X-Ray (CXR) X-ray commonly performed on patients to determine the extent of respiratory deficits
Cheyne-Stokes respirations A pattern of breathing common in severe head injuries or patients about to expire. There is an increase in inspiration followed by a series of gradually decreasing tidal volumes with a period of apnea
Chronic venous insufficiency Degeneration of the elastic quality of the valve tissue, poor venous dilation, and muscle pump dysfunction. Lower extremity hyperextension and fluid retention
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Any respiratory condition characterized by chronic abnormal expiratory flow rates. Decrease in the lungs ability to perform ventilation
Clubbing A condition that affects the toes, fingers and the tips of the fingers. They take on a bulbous appearance due to chronic hypoxia
Coarctation of the aorta A cogenital heart defect resulting in narrowing of the aorta beyond the origin of the arteries that supply the extremities
Congestive heart failure (CHF) A condition in which the heart is unable to adequately circulate blood resulting in edema
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) Surgical procedure that establishes a shunt that allows blood to travel from the aorta to a branch of the coronary artery at a point past an obstruction. Utilized to bypass atherosclerotic vessels and restore blood supply to the heart
Cor pulmonale Right ventricular failure due to chronic respiratory problems
Corticosteroids Medication used to reduce edema and inflammation in the tissue
Coughing The easiest method of clearing the airway and removing excess secretions. The rectus abdominis is the primary muscle utilized to produce __________
Cyanosis Bluish tinge to the skin from decreased oxygen and an increase of carbon dioxide in the blood
Cystic fibrosis An obstructive lung disorder that is genetically based resulting in dysfunction of the exocrine glands. Leads to chronic lung infections and pancreatic dysfunction
Deconditioning An overall decrease in fitness level due to prolonged bed rest or inactivity and may be accompanied by orthostatic hypotension
Deep vein thrombosus (DVT) An inflammation of a vein with the formation of a thrombus, may be life threatening
Diaphoresis Excessive sweating
Diaphragmatic breathing Type of breathing pattern used to improve gas exchange & increase lung volume. The patient is semi-reclined, during exhalation, gentle pressure is applied changing to firm pressure at end of exhalation. During inhalation, resistance is applied by PT
Dyspnea Decreased ability to breathe with ease, at rest or with exertion. Amount measured on a scale of +1 to +4; +1 is mild that is noticeable to the pt. only, +4 is severe difficulty with breathing & pt. cannot continue the activity
Embolism A blood clot that forms in one part of the body and travels to another part. The clot commonly travels to the heart or the lung obstructing an artery, can be life threatening
Expectorant Thick, colored, malodorous, often frothy production of sputum from the lungs of patients with COPD. Laboratory analysis and the characteristics often aid in the diagnosis of, and classifying the severity of the disease
Fetid Rank or foul smelling. Sputum that usually occurs with cystic fibrosis or lung abcesses is described as ___________
Forced expiration technique The patient produces one or two forced expirations with low lung volume
Forced vital capacity (FVC) The amount of air that can be forcefully expelled following a maximal inspiration
Gallop rhythm (murmurs) Extra heart sounds often associated with congestive heart failure. There are three sounds in each cycle. The sound resembles the galloping of a horse
Graded exercise testing (GXT) A measured exercise stress test to determine the patient's physiological responses to functional exercise. Capacity is at a submaximal or maximal level
Heart block A partial or complete interference of the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles. Alters the rhythm of the heartbeat, known as arrhythmia
Hemoptysis Blood-tinged sputum, arising form the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or the lungs
Hemothorax Blood in the pleural cavity caused by a rupture of blood vessels resulting from inflammtion of the lungs in pneumonia or pulmonary tuberculosis
Huffing A respiratory exercise used to increase maximal expiration without increasing intrathoracic pressure. The patient will produce a sound similar to "Ha,Ha,Ha" during expiration
Hypercapnia Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypoxemia Decreased oxygen concentration in the blood, measured by arterial oxygen parital pressure (PaO2) values
Hypoxia An oxygen deficiency, a decreased concentration of oxygen in the inspired air
Incentive spirometer A hand held device used by patients to measure and encourage deep inspiration. Commonly used for patients that have been hospitalized for any length of time to decrease the chance of pneumonia
Intubation (endothracheal) Insertion of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to maintain the airway
Ischemia A temporary lack of blood supply due to an obstruction of the circulation to the part. Lack of blood supply to the heart leads to angina pectoris
Lobectomy The removal of one or more lobes of the lung
Lymphatic disease (lymphedema) Accumulation of fluid due to an obstruction of the lymphatic system. Results in swelling of the extremities
Maximal aerobic power (max VO2) The maximal amount of air exchanged in the lungs per unit ot time
Maximal heart rate reserve (HRR) The difference between the resting and the maximal heart rate
Maximum minute ventilation (VeMax) the amount of air exchanged into the lungs in one minute
Metabolic energy expenditure (MET) The amount of oxygen the body utilizes while the patient is at rest
Mucoid White or clear sputum that can be present with a chronic cough for pulmonary disorders like bronchitis or cystic fibrosis
Mucopurulent A mixture of mucoid sputum and pus and is assoicated with a pulmonary infection. Usually yellow or light green in color
Necrosis (ischemic) Death of a tissue surrounded by healthy tissue, resulting from ischemia
Orthopnea Respiratory condition in which the patient has difficulty breathing in any position but an erect sitting or standing position
Orthostatic hypotension A decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure with positional changes. Occurs when a person assumes an upright position from a supine position. Usually exacerbated after prolonged bed rest
PaCO2 Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood. Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg)
Paced breathing Performing inhalation and expiration within the limits of the patient's capacity
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Persistence of communication between main pulmonary artery & aorta; a congenital heart defect that results in failure of the ductus arteriosus (the channel of communication between main pulmonary artery & aorta in a fetus), from closing
Percussion A forceful, rhythmical pattern applied to the chest wall of a patient, performed by cupping the hands or with a mechanical device. Assists in loosening of secretions and aids in the process of removal
Pericardium The membranous fibroserous sac enclosing the heart and the bases of the great vessels
Perfusion Supplying of an organ or tissue with nutrients and oxygen by injecting blood or other suitable fluid into an artery
Pleura A serous membrane that surrounds both lungs and is replicated upon the walls of the thorax and diaphragm. Secretions assist with decreasing the resistance during respiratory movement
Pleural effusion Fluid in the thoracic cavity between the visceral and parietal pleura
Pneumonia An inflammation of the alveoli, interstitial tissue, and bronchioles of the lungs due to an infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or other pathogenic organisms, or to irritation by chemicals or other agents (eg, oil, radiation, drugs)
Pneumothorax Air or gas in the pleural cavity that can cause a collapse of the lung if not treated
Postural drainage The positioning of a patient so that the involved lung segments are perpendicular to the ground thereby using gravity to assist in removal of excess secretions
Pulmonary edema Effusion of serous fluid into the alveoli and interstitial tissue of the lungs. Caused by a weakening or failure of the left ventricle, which allows blood to back up and increase pressure in the pulmonary capillaries. Is life threatening
Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) Measures the lungs ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. The tests are performed by measuring the amount of air that can be maximally exhaled after a maximum inspiration
Pursed lip breathing (gently blowing out candles) Type of breathing-enables person with COPD to exhale passively by increasing intrabronchial pressured air out of lungs with assistance-they cannot do it with their lung capacity. The maneuver alters air flow rate & prevents bronchial collapse
Purulent Yellow or greenish sputum that is usually thick an dcopious, filled with pus, indicative of an infection
Rales or crackles Adventitious lung sounds heard on ausculation of the chest. Produced by air passing over retained airway secretions or sudden opening of collapsed airways. Diseases such as chronic bronchitis, heard primarily on inspiration
Raynaud's Syndrome A peripheral vascular disorder found more commmonly in females between 1-30 years of age. Presents with abnormal vasoconstriction of the extremities when exposed to cold or under emotional stress
Red blood cells (RBC) The amount of red blood cells present in the blood can determine how well the body is transporting oxygen to the heart and lungs
Rhonchi or wheezing An adventitious sound heard during auscultaion as the person breathes. Wheezes are usually heard with expiration. Occurs when the airway is partially blocked due to secretions, mucosal swelling, or tumor tissue pressing on the passage.
Segmental breathing Firm pressure is applied just before inspiration & pt is asked to breath in against resistance of PT's hands. The resistance is released to allow full inhalation following the initial period of resistance. Used in conjunction with postural drainage
Shaking A bouncing procedure used to increase the effectivness of percussion and postural drainage. Pressure is applied to the rib cage during the expiratory phase following a deep inhalation
Stridor A high pitched, harsh sound heard during respiration. Resembling the sound of blowing wind due to an obstruction of the upper airway
Stroke volume The amount of blood ejected from the left ventricel with each heartbeat
Sustained maximal inspiration (SMI) Technique utilized to increase the inhaled volume; sustain, or improve alveolar inflation; maintain or restore functional residual capacity. Pt inspires slowly thru nose or pursed lips to maximal inspiration. Hold for 3 sec & exhale volume passively
Tachycardia An increased heart rate. Adults would be > 100 beats/minute
Tachypnea An increased respiratory rate
Target heart rate A pre-selected heart rate determined to be within safe exercise limits for an individual patient
Tetralogy of Fallot A congenital heart defect that includes a ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary stenosis. Blood received from both R & L ventricels-hypertrophy of R ventricle. Results in "blue baby"
Thoracotomy Surgical incision of the chest wall
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's Disease) A chronic, recurring, inflammatory, vascular occlusive disease, chiefly affecting the peripheral arteries & veins of extremities-manifests itself in young male smokers. Usually begins distally & progresses proximally. Disease halts if stop smoking
Thrombosis The formation, development, or existence of a blood clot within the vascular system. Is a life-threatening event
Trendelenburg position A position in which the patient's head is low and the body and legs are on an elevated and inclined plane. Utilized during postural drainage. The head of the bed is tipped down 15 to 18 degrees
Valsalva maneuver An attempt to focibly exhale with the glottis, nose and mouth closed. Causes increased intrathoracic pressure, slowing of the pulse, decreased return of blood to the heart, and venous pressures-childbirth, difficult bowel movement, isometric contraction
Vasodilators Medications that cause dilation of the blood vessels
Ventricular septal defect A congenital heart defect located in the septum resulting in an opening between the left and right ventricles. Permits blood to be shunted between the ventricles
White blood cells (WBC) The amount of white blood cells present in the blood can signify infection or the ability of the body to fight infection, if the count is elevated
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