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Krause Ch.1

Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Excretion of Nutrients

Vocab. WordDefinition
active transport the movement of particles via a carrier protein across cell membranes and epithelial layers; requires expenditure of energy.
amylase an enzyme that is secreted in saliva and from the pancreas and catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch.
brush border the microvilli that greatly increase the surface area of intestinal mucousal cells
chelation the process by which a mineral is bound to a ligand-usually an acid, an organix acid, or a sugar- so that it is in a form capable of being absorbed into intestinal cells.
cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone secreted by the proximal small bowel and stimulates pancreatic secretion of enzymes ( and some bicarbonate & H20), simulates gallbladder contraction, slows gastric empyting, stim. colonic activity, may regulate appetite
chyme the semifluid, gruel-like material produced by the gastric digestion of food.
colonic salvage the process of fermenting and absorbing end products of dietary CHOs, fiber, and amino acids in the small intestine
enterogastrone hormone secreted by the duodenal mucosa in response to the presence of fat in the duodenum; inhibits gastric secretion and motility, slowing the delivery of additional lipids into the duodenum
facilitated diffusion the movement of particles across a membrane via a transporter or carrier protein
gastrin a hormone that is produced by the antral mucosa of the stomach and stimulates gastric secretions and motility.
glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) hormone released from the intestineal mucosa that decreases gastric emptying, lowers glucagon secretion, stimulates insulin secretion, and increases insulin sensitivity and satiety.
glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) hormone that is released from the intestinal mucosa in the presence of glucose, fat, and/or protein and increases insulin release by pancreatic islet cells.
lactase an intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose
maltase an intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose into glucose
micelle a complex of primarily free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts that allow lipids to be absorbed into intestinal mucosal cells
microvilli minute cylindrical processes that are found on the surface of the intestinal cells and greatly increase their absorptive surface area
motilin a polypeptide gastrointestinal hormone that promotes gastric emptying and intestinal motility.
pancreatic lipase an enzyme in pancreatic juice that hydrolyzes the ester linkages between fatty acids and glycerol
parietal cells large cells that are scattered along the walls of the stomach and secrete hydrocholoric acis in gastric juice
passive diffusion the random movement of particles through openings in cellular membranes according to electrochemical and concentration gradients
pepsin a protease active only in the acid environment of the stomach serves to change the shape and size of some proteins in a meal
peristalsis the movement by which the alimentary canal propels its contents
prebiotic food, usually CHOs or specific oligosaccharides (fructooligosaccharides, insulin) from vegetables, grains, and legumes; may also include resistant starch,soluble dietary fiber, and malabsorbed sugards that are preferred energy source for good GI microbes
probiotic food or concentrate of live organisms that contribute to a healthy microbial environment and suppress potential harmful microbes
proteolytic enzymes the enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase, all of which break down protein into proteoses, peptones, peptides, and amino acids
secretin a hormone released from the duodenal wall into the bloodstream that stimulates the pancreas to secrete water and bicarbonate and inhibits gastrin secretion
somatostatin a polypeptide hormone secreted from the stomach, sm. intestine, and pancreas that tends to inhibit other fastrointestinal secretions and motility
sucrase the intestinal enzymes that hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose
synbiotic a combination of probiotics and prebiotics of a long-chain inulin-type fructans
villi the numerous fingerlike projections that cover the surface of the small intestine mucosa
Created by: izzyann1031