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SRGT Ch12 Terminolog

Nervous System Ch12 Terminology

QuestionAnswer
Central nervous system CNS
Brain encephal/o
Spinal cord myel/o
Peripheral nervous system PNS
Afferent/sensory Carry impulses to the brain
Efferent/motor Carry impulses away from the brain
Somatic Voluntary
Autonomic Involuntary
Neurons neur/o
Dendrites (dendr/o) Projections from the cell body that receive neural impulses.
Cell body Control center of the cell
Axon Myelin sheath- white substance that coats the axons
Schwann cells produce myelin
Synapse Space between terminal fibers and dendrites
Gila/neuroglia (gli/o) Physically hold the neurons together and protect them
Astrocytes (astr/o) connect neurons and blood vessels
Brain-divided into 4 parts... Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon Brainstem
Spinal cord cord/o, myel/o
Cerebrum Largest portion of the brain cerebral cortex
Frontal lobe speech and motor area
Temporal lobe auditory and olfactory
Parietal lobe touch and taste
Occipital lobe vision
Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus
Brain stem Midbrain Reflex center for eye and head movement
Pons "bridge" between medulla oblongata and the cerebrum
Medulla Oblongata regulates heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
Spinal cord Medulla oblongata to L1 Cauda equina Nerve roots
Nerve roots radicul/o, rhiz/o
Meninges (mening/o, meningi/o) protective covering for the CNS
Dura mater (dur/o) outer covering for the meninges Subdural space between dura mater and arachnoid membrane
Arachnoid membrane Subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CSF also found in ventricles of the brain
Cranial nerves 12 pairs which conduct impulses between the brain and the head, neck, thoracic and abdominal areas
Spinal nerves 31 pairs Named for their location: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
Dermatomes Skin Surfaces supplied by a single afferent spinal nerve.
Sympathetic nervous system "fight-or-flight" response
Parasympathetic nervous system "rest and digest"
Amnesia Loss of memory caused by brain damage or trauma
Aphasia Lack of ability to form or understand speech
Dysphagia Condition of difficulty with swallowing
Dyssomnia disorders of sleep-awake cycles
Insomnia inability to sleep or stay asleep
Hypersomnia excessive depth or length of sleep
Fasciculation involuntary contraction of small, local muscles
Gait, abnormal Disorder in the manner of walking
Neuralgia Nerve pain
Paresthesia feeling of prickling, burning or numbness
Seizure Neuromuscular reaction to abnormal electrical activity within the brain; also called convulsions.
Syncope Fainting
Vertigo Dizziness
Acalculia inability to perform mathematical calculations
Agnosia Inability to recognize objects visually, auditorily or with other senses
Agraphia Inability to write
Anosmia Lack of sense of smell
Apraxia Inability to perform purposeful movements or to use objects appropriately
Dyslexia Inability or difficulty with reading and/or writing.
gnos/o knowledge
graph/o record
osm/o sense of smell
prax/o purposeful movement
lex/o word
Hydrocephalus Condition of abnormal accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain
Spina bifida Condition in which the spinal column has an abnormal opening/ herniation that allows protrusion of the meninges and/or the spinal cord. Aka: Meningocele or Meningomyelocele
Tay-Sachs Inherited disease that occurs mainly in people of Eastern European Jewish origin Enzyme deficiency that results in CNS deterioration
Coma Deep, prolonged unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused.
Concussion Serious head injury characterized by loss of consciousness, amnesia, seizures
Cerebral contusion head injury of the sufficient force bruise the brain
Hematoma Localized collection of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, tissue or space, due to a break in the wall of a blood vessel
Herniated intervertebral disk Displacement of an intervertebral disk so that is presses on a nerve, causing pain and/or numbness.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) Progressive, neurodegenerative disease in which patients exhibit an impairment of cognitive functioning. Cause: unknown
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig disease Degenerative, fatal disease of the motor neurons in which patients exhibit progressive muscle weakness and atrophy.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurodegenerative disease characterized be destruction of the myelin sheaths of the CNS neurons.
Parkinson disease (PD) Progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by tremors, fasciculations, slow shuffling gait, hypokinesia, dysphasia and dysphagia.
Bell Palsy Paralysis of facial nerves
Epilepsy Group of disorders characterized by some or all of the following: recurrent seizures, sensory disturbances, abnormal behavior and/or loss of consciousness.
Narcolepsy sudden attacks of sleep
Tourette syndrome Abnormal condition characterized by facial grimaces, tics, involuntary arm and shoulder movements and involuntary vocalizations.
***Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain, most frequently caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito.
***Meningitis any infection of inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
***Neuritis inflammation of the nerves
***Polyneuritis inflammation of several/many peripheral nerves.
***Radiculitis Inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve
***Sciatica Inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain and tenderness along the path of the nerve through the thigh and leg
***Shingles Acute infection caused by the latent/dormant varicella zoster virus (Chicken pox).
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Ischemia of cerebral tissue due to an occlusion (blockage) from thrombus or embolus. Sequelae (an aftereffect of a disease) may include paralysis, weakness, speech defects, sensory changes that last longer than 24 hours or death.
Migraine headache of vascular origin.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) TIA has the same mechanisms as a CVA, but the sequelae resolve and disappear within 24 hours.
Paralysis loss of muscle function
Diplegia Paralysis of the same body part on both sides of the body
Hemiplegia Paralysis on the left or right side
Monoplegia Paralysis of one limb
Paraplegia Paralysis of the lower limbs and trunk
Quadriplegia Paralysis of arms, legs, and trunk
Cerebral angiography x-ray of the cerebral arteries, including the internal carotids, taken after the injection of a contrast medium
Echoencephalography Ultrasound exam of the brain
Myelography x-ray of teh spinal canal after the introduction of a radiopague substance
Positron emission tomography (PET)
electroencephalography (EEG) record of the electrical activity of the brain.
Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) test that consists of a series of short, daytime naps in the sleep lab to measure daytime sleepiness and how fast the patient falls asleep.
Polysomnography Measurement and record of a number of functions while the patient is asleep.
Babinski reflex in normal conditions, the dorsiflexion of the great toe when the plantar surface of the sole is stimulated.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis examination of fluid from the CNS to detect pathogens and abnormalities.
Lumbar puncture (LP) Procedure to aspirate CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) from the lumbar subarachnoid space for diagnostic purposes.
Craniectomy removal of part of the skull
Craniotomy incision into the skull
stereotaxic radiosurgery surgery using radio waves to localize structures within 3-D space
ventriculoperitoneostomy also known as a VP shunt Procedure to drain fluid from brain ventricles through a shunt or catheter and valve that leads to the abdominal cavity.
Vagotomy Cutting of a branch of the vagus nerve to reduce the secretion of gastric acid.
nerve block use of anesthesia to prevent sensory nerve impulses from reaching the CNS
neurectomy excision of part or all of a nerve
neurolysis destruction of a nerve
neuroplasty surgical repair of a nerve
neurorrhaphy suture of a severed nerve
neurotomy incision of a nerve
carotid endarterectomy removal of the atheromatous plaque lining the carotid artery to increase blood flow and leave a smooth surface
cordotomy incision of the spinal cord to relieve pain
rhizotomy resection of the dorsal root of a spinal nerve to relieve pain
sympathectomy surgical interruption of part of the sympathetic pathways for the relief of chronic pain or to promote vasodilation
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation -method of pain control by application of electrical impulses to the skin
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
CVA cerebrovascular accident
TIA transient ischemic attack
Created by: Alyse Gilmore Alyse Gilmore on 2011-07-04



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