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Urinalysis - mini

Glucose (raised BS) Diabetes mellitus, glucose infusion
Bilirubin Liver cell injury, biliary tract obstruction
Glucose (no raised BS) Pregnancy, renal glycosuria
Ketones Diabetic ketoacidosis, fasting, ketotic hypoglycaemia (young children)
High specific gravity Dehydration, impaired kidney function
Blood (Haematuria) Kidney disorder (glomerulonephritis, tumour, infection)
Low specific gravity High fluid intake, diabetes insipidus, chronic renal failure
Low pH Acidaemia - diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, low potassium
Protein Glomerulonephritis, UTI, fever, heart failure
High pH Stale urine, alkalaemia (e.g. vomiting, excess antacids), UTI with ammonia-forming bacteria
Urobilinogen (increased) Increased production (sickle cell), or decreased uptake (cirrhosis, viral hep)
Nitrite UTI
Leucocytes UTI, inflammation
Blood (Haemoglobinuria) Severe haemolysis (e.g. sickle cell crisis)
Urobilinogen (decreased) Biliary tract obstruction, colon sterilization (e.g. antibiotics)
Strong smell UTI
Brownish colour Blood or pigment (myoglobinuria)
Created by: kuc