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Anatomy of the heart

heart is located.. in the thoracic cavity between the lungs in mediastenum.
the base of the heart is... called the apex
endocardium inner most layer also the valves. the conduction system is embedded in this layer.
myocardium the middle layer. it is the muscle layer. in this layer are the intercalated disks.
pericardium the outer most layer. there is a layer of fluid between the pericardium and the pericardial sac.
right atrium receives unoxygenated blood from the inferior and superior vena cavas.
left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
right ventricle sends unoxygenated blood to the lungs.
left ventricle sends oxygenated blood out to the rest of the body.
semilunar valves sends blood out of the heart pulmonic & aortic valves
pulmonic valve semilunar on right sends blood to the lungs
aortic valve semilunar on left sends blood to the body
atrioventricular valve between atrium and ventricle tricuspid & mitral valves
tricuspid valve between right atrium and right ventricle
mitral valve between left atrium and left ventricle
right coronary artery supplies blood to the right side of heart
left coronary artery supplies blood to the left side of the heart
left anterior descending supplies blood to the front wall of the left ventricle.
circumflex artery supplies blood to the lateral and posterior wall of the left ventricle
conduction system of the heart.. SA node-internodal pathways-AV node- bundle of his-bundle branches-purkinje fibers
sinoatrial node (SA node) natural pacemaker of the heart. located in the upper wall right atrium. generates a HR of 60-100BPM
internodal pathways spread impulses throughout the right and left atrium
atrioventricular node (AV node) located in the septal wall of the right atrium just above the tricuspid valve. it delays the impulses so that the atrium can fully empty and the ventricles can respond. it fires at a rate of 46-60BPM
bundle of his begins ventricular contraction. rate of 40-60BPM
bundle branches right and left found in the interventricular septum. stimulates the walls of the right and left ventricles.
cardiac cells automaticity-excitability-conductivity-extensibility
automaticity the ability of the cell to generate an impulse.
excitability the ability of the cell to respond to the impulses
conductivity the ability of the cell to transmit the impulse.
contractility muscle can shorten
extensibility muscle can stretch
depolarization "doing"(contraction) of the cells of the heart. K+ potassium is negative on the outside and Na+ sodium is positive on the inside.
repolarization "resting" of the cells. K+ potassium is negative on the inside cell and Na+ sodium is positive on the outside
K+ potassium, kalemia always negative
Na+ sodium always positive
Created by: joanneb