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History of Music

Barocco in Portuguese means what? A rough or imperfect pearl
Baroque was looked at by people with what kind of attitude? Negative
Early Baroque Period? 1580 to 1650
Main Baroque Period? 1650 to 1720
Late Baroque Period 1720 to 1770
What are some characteristics of the Baroque period? Irrational (Mirror Hall) Mysticism Escapism Don't want to see reality Shows imagination and fantasy Presents strong feelings Strong opposites Exaggeration
What aspects in life go into the Baroque style? Natural Science Painting Architecture Theater Art
Salzburg is what style of city? Why? Baroque. The arch-bishop of that time wanted that style/Lots of squares and space to show power
What was the political system of this time? Absolutism
Who was Ludwig XIV? Most famous absolute monarch Wanted all the power to himself Furthered the French economy Good dancer
What is Affektenlehre? The doctrine of affections. Aesthetic theory of music in the Baroque times. Under the influence of classical rhetoric.
What are some examples of Affektenlehre? Love - Hate Joy - Sorrow Wonder - Desire
What is Prima Prattica? A term used by Claudio Monteverdi to describe music composed in the old style of the early Baroque period.
What is Seconda Prattica? A solo vocal or intrumental lone is composed above an instrumental bass line. Marks the starting point of "basso continuo"
What is Basso Continuo? Provides the harmonic structure to music. An affect is assured when presented by a single person.
The Baroque period is the first with a huge number of what? Instrumental music pieces. Showed peoples virtuoso
What was the Florence Camerata? A group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals who met in the house of Count Bardi in 1576 on. They discussed art, music and drama. Wanted to return to the form and style of the ancient Greeks.
Who was the first person to compose songs in seconda prattica? Vincenzo Galilei who was Galileo's father.
What was the first opera? La Dafne
Who composed the first opera? Jacopo Peri
Who wrote the first opera? Ottavio Rinuccini
What do you know of the first opera? A dramatic myth or fairytale. No musical interlude. About 10 instruments and chorus. Only fragments remain. Just 6 scenes and a prologue no acts
What was the first opera to survive? "Le Musiche Sopra I'Euridice"
Who brought the opera to Rome? Count Bardi while going to work for the Pope.
What was Rome known for? Church music
What were some differences between the Florence opera and the Rome opera? Instrumental interludes. Ancient Greek settings as well as Christian topics Bigger chorus which integrated a plot.
Who was Claudio Monteverdi and what did he do? Wrote first composition at the age of 15. Wrote first publication at the age of 20. Worked for Count Vincenzo in Mantua. Left Mantua and becamse a conductor and composer at San Marco in Venice. Composed 18 operas but only 3 survived.
What was Claudio Monteverdi's first opera? And what year did it premier? L'Orfeo. 1607.
What is L'Orfeo? An opera based on the Greek myth of Orpheus and his dead lover Euridice. Earliest opera of great importance. Had a huge orchestra. Had 5 acts and a short prologue.
What were opera houses financed by? Ticket Sales.
When does Monteverdi settle in Venice? 1612.
When was the first public opera house opened in Venice? 1637.
How many operas did Franceso Cavalli write for Venice between 1639 and 1673? 40.
Because opera houses were funded by ticket sales what was the result? Small orchestra. Less singers. Less mythology.
What were some musical changes after Venice? Several arias. Arias often in Da-Capo form. Importance is on the expression by using a "recitative accopagnato" Recitative is for the plot. Aria is for expression. Virtuosity of the singer is important. Some special effects.
Recitative is used more for what? Plot.
Aria is used more for what? Expression.
Where did the new genre of "seria" developed and who was it developed by? Naples. 2 Librettists - Apostolo Zeno and Pietro Metastasio.
What effects of operas did Zeno and Metastasio not like? Stage effects. How composers were slaves to singers. Librettists had to please everyone.
What are some changes Zeno and Metastasio made? No mysticism. No comedy. Distinction of plot which is narrated by recitatives. After an aria singer they must exit stage to encourage applause. Court operas were commissioned by an emperor and they are the hero of the story.
Main roles get how man arias? 6.
Supporting singers get how many arias? 3.
How many people are on stage at one time? 6.
"Giulio Cesare" is an opera seria by who? George Handel.
The first French opera was composed when and by whom? 1672. Robert Cambert and Pierre Perrion
Who was Jean Lully? Lived in Florence and then Paris. Was a very good musician and dancer. Good friends with Louis XIV and was a composer for his court. Collaborated with Moliere writing ballets comedies and tragedies. Later wrote operas.
What was Armide? An opera by Lully. Written in 1686. Composed in the style of French overture. Had 2 main parts: A and B. A was slow. B was fast.
What were some differences between the French and Italian operas? French recitative was more expressive. No use of Da-Capo. Lots of ballet and chorus scenes. Subject from Greek mythology. A prologue and 5 acts. Music should imitate nature. Was called "Tragedie en Musique" or "Tragedie Lyrique".
Orare means what? To pray.
Oratoium means what? A house for praying or for worship.
Who was Filippo Neri? Became a priest when he was 30 in Rome. Organized meetings for reading and singing about the bible. More and more musicians were integrated His first compositions were considered Oratorio's in 1600.
What are some characteristics of the Oratorio? It's a work for the orchestra, chorus and solo singer. Had a plot which told a story only by words and music. Often was a religious theme.
Who was Giacomo Carissimi? First significant composer of oratorios Most famous work was "Historia Di Jephte".
What was the story "Historia Di Jephte" about? A military leader of the Isrealites is victorious in battle and owes the victory to a promise he made to the Lord. He vowed if he won that he would sacrifice the first person he encountered on his return home. It was his daughter.
What happened to instrumental music in the Baroque period? The quality of instruments started to improve causing more and more composers to write masterpieces.
Musicians were called what? Stadtpheifers.
Musicians were a kind of what? Art Craftsmen.
What were J.S. Bach's most important jobs? Weimar - Concertmaster at a court. Kothen - Director of music for Prince Leopold. Leipzig - Music teacher. Composer.
What happened to J.S. Bach? In 1749 his health declined. Became blind. Died of a heart stroke.
Created by: spugh22