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3 Main Sociology Theorists Marx, Durkheim, Weber.
Sociology Research Process Continuous and Cumulative.
Karl Marx Areligious. Society is composed of 2 opposing groups. The Bourgeoisie & the Proletariat. Boss & workers. Capitalism moves towards monopoly & eventually collapses. Proletariat overthrows ruling class. One class shares all.
Emile Durkheim Father of sociology. Suicide study.
Max Weber Looks at the individual point of view.
The Big 3 theoretical perspectives 1. Symbolic Interactionism-Micro. Weber. 2. Functionalism-Macro. Durkheim. 3. Conflict Theory-Macro. Marx.
Statistics Easily manipulated. Third variables. Ask: Who's paying for the study?
Bivariate Analysis 2-variable analysis. Independent variable=predictor. Dependent variable=predicted.
T-test Checks for statistical significance.
Culture Language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, & material objects passed on from 1 gen to the next.
Ethnolinguistic groups Culture grouped around language.
Language Allows for shared perspectives. Shared past & future. Goal-directed behavior.
Ethnocentrism Absence of a knowledge of your own culture. Your culture is your lens.
Symbolic Culture Gestures & language
Functionalism Durkheim. Everything is balanced/functional in society (exists for a reason). Conflict in society has a purpose. Holistic. If it exists for extended period, it is functional. Maintain equilibrium.
Conflict Theory Marx. The top gets all the good stuff. Everyone on the bottom gets nothing. The people on the top see themselves as functionalists. Competition for scarce resources. Inequality is not inevitable or necessary.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language is a cultural lens
Subculture A world w/i a dominant culture. Ex. surfers.
Counterculture A group w/ norms & values at odds w/ the dominant culture. Ex. KKK.
Types of Capital Human. Financial. Social. Cultural.
Sociobiology People behave the way they do due to their genetic makeup. Darwin & natural selection.
Cultural Lag Individual not able to keep up with technological progress.
Cultural Leveling More similarities among different countries.
Sharing Norms Passive expression-example. Active expression-letting others know.
Folkways Norms not strictly enforced.
Mores Strictly enforced norms. Essential to core values or well-being of the group.
Barry Schwartz: "The Paradox of Choice" Max individual freedom. We have more choice than B4. Effects: -Paralysis rather than liberation-hard to choose-opportunity cost. -Escalation of expectations-do better, feel worse. Low expectations=secret to happiness. Officialdogma=f. Need fishbowl.
Socialization Learn verbal skills. Expression of emotion. Appropriate social behavior.
Piaget: Development of reasoning 1. Sensorimotor: Birth-2. Environment. 2. Preoperational: 2-7. Symbols. Can't take the role of another. 3. Concrete operational: 7-12. Causation, numbers, take role of another. 4. Formal operational: after 12. Abstract thinking.
Social Reproduction Schools play an active role in reproducing or exacerbating inequalities. Ex. AP classes.
The Body Project History of American Girls. How has the ideal female body changed over time?
The Body Project four conclusions 1. Loosening of mother-daughter connection 2. Doctors & marketers replace mothers in teaching about bodies 3. Lack of maternal influence leaves girls vulnerable. Body socialized 4. Virginity no longer upheld as a cultural ideal. Sexually vulnerable.
Macro level Social institutions & social structures.
Micro level Individuals & social interaction.
Social institutions Fulfill needs. Family, religion, education, economics, medicine, politics, etc.
Status Ascribed=born into. Achieved=worked for. Master status=most prominent.
Status symbols Indicate status. Ex. wedding rings, fan clothing...
manifest functions visible and intended benefits of social structure.
latent functions invisible and unintended beneifits of social structures.
Causes of Poverty Popular view. Culture of poverty. Situational poverty. Structural poverty.
Popular view People are impoverished due to individual characteristics. Something is wrong with the person.
Culture of poverty Structure initially causes poverty. People in poverty adapt to characteristics. Can't take the ghetto out of the kid. Structural forces put someone in poverty, but they’ve internalized negative flaws that will keep them there no matter where they are.
Situational poverty Structure constantly exerts an impact. Person develops characteristics.
Structural poverty Political/economic forces cause poverty. Taking the kid out of the ghetto” would totally solve the problem of poverty, because this kid has no individual characteristics keeping him poor.
Social groups People who interact and feel that what they have in common is significant. Dyad. Triad. Relationships weaken but organization becomes more stable w/ bigger groups.
Primary groups Most influential. Face to face. Long time. Ex. Family.
Secondary groups Shorter time. Not as emotional. Ex. Class. Work.
Ingroup You are in. Identify with.
Outgroup What we don't agree with. Compete against. Ex. Opposing team.
Reference group You do not belong to it but admire it.
Symbolic Interactionism How an individual's interpretation of symbols affects behavior. Stereotyping. Personal space. Touching.
Impression management On stage performance. Most beneficial consequence for self w/o embarrassing.
Dramaturgy The presentation of self in everyday life. Front stage vs. back stage. We become the roles we play.
Role strain 1 role. Conflicts that someone feels w/i a role. Ex. Knowing answer in class but not wanting to make students look bad.
Role Conflicet 2 roles. Conflicts between roles.
Sign-vehicles How we communicate info about ourselves. 1. social setting 2. appearance 3. manner. Preventative practices & corrective practices.
Frames Collective understanding of "what's going on." Breaking frame.
Peer Pressure Giving in is a process. 1. Compliance (external) 2. Identification (doubt) 3. Internalization (on board).
Groupthink Narrowing of thought by a group. One correct answer. Isolated, cohesive group. High stress.
Group diffusion Responsibility-expect someone else to act.
Dysfunctions Effects of social structure that create social instability.
Standard deviation Measures spread/variation.
Standard Error Goes down as sample size goes up.
Practical significance Just because something is statistically significant does not mean it is important.
Social change brought about by: Value contradictions.
Deviance Not conforming to norms/rules in social context. Theoretical perspectives: Functional, labeling, social bond, conflict.
Social Bond Theory Attachments to other people keep one from becoming deviant. Commitment to conformity. More social ties=less likely to be deviant. Isolation=deviance. Micro.
Saints & Roughnecks William Chambliss. The boys lived up to their labels. Visibility. Demeanor. Bias.
Labeling theory Rejecting/accepting labels received. Negative consequences of stigmatization of being labeled deviant. Primary deviance-initial act of rule breaking. Secondary deviance-person labeled accepts new identity & continues behavior.
Functionalist perspective on deviance (macro) Produces social solidarity (9/11). Favors repression of criminal activity & use of sanctions. Deviant behavior defines boundaries. Criminals are negative role models. Some deviance leads to social change.
Conflict perspective on deviance (macro) Protect rich. Legal rights of poor ignored. Middle class sides w/ elite. Theft of a TV receives a longer sentence than stealing millions through illegal business practices.
Mikaela Dufur-Deviance in sports Normal definition is disgraceful. Girl racehorse winning is not disgraceful. Deviates from the norm. Negative deviance is villany. Positive deviance is heroism. Deviant through statistics, rules, norms.
Recidivism Coming back.
Poverty & Crime: Kramer's four key findings Extreme poverty: inhibits children’s intellectual development.Breeds violence by encouraging child abuse & neglect. Creates stresses that undermine parents’ ability to raise children. Breeds crime by undermining parents’ ability to monitor & supervise.
Hagan: Effects of Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Outcomes Exposure to violence, especially violence in intimate romantic relationships, forces a premature end to adolescence through early exits from conventional teenage roles. Ex. teen pregnancy, thoughts of suicide,, running away.
Global stratification theories Colonialism. Culture of Poverty.
Colonialism First countries to industrialize gained advantage. Established colonies and exploited them for labor and natural resources.
Culture of Poverty Nations crippled by way of life that perpetuates poverty from generation to generation.
World Systems theory Core Nations-More economically diverse. Lots of ways to make $. Periphery Nations-Least economically diverse. 1 economic activity. Raw materials. Hard labor. Semiperiphery Nations-in between.
Views of Social Class Marx: relationship to means of production. Weber: property, power, & prestige.
Social mobility Intergenerational-Dif. social class than parents. Structural-layoffs, etc. Exchange-change proportionately. Classes remain the same.
"Waging a Living" Chasing the American Dream. Personal factors. Structural factors. How they move up.
Sex & Gender Sex is biological. Gender is socially constructed. Masculinity & femininity.
Gender Role Expectations A system of behavioral expectations, power relations, images, stereotypes, & social rewards. We study how men & women "do gender" differently. Women earn 77% of what men do.
Gender Pay Gap Women have more capital and less personal earnings. Women hit the glass ceiling while men ride the glass escalator. Personal characteristics of women matter more in determining pay. Tennis ex.
Race Socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of society consider important.
Ethnicity common ancestry and culture.
"one-drop rule" One drop of minority blood makes you a minority.
Crime Cycle Of all jail inmates across the United States, almost half have a father, mother, brother, sister, or spouse who has served time.”
Systems of Stratification Slavery, Caste (no social mobility), Social Class (fluid boundaries).
Poverty Line Food Budget times 3.
Poverty Risk factors present at birth 1) Low parent education (< high school) 2) Young parent age (teen or early 20s) 3) Single-parent
ECONOMIC & DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES Agriculture Industrial revolution WWI–depression–WWII (small cohort) 1950s Baby Boom (large cohort) 1970s Large cohort; shift from manufacturing to technology Jobs pay 25% less than 20 years earlier (1950s) Changes have widened the gap between class
Maximalist Perspective of Gender Difference emphasized. Attributes differences to biology or early socialization, or a mixture. Distinctive “cultures” for women and men. Gendered differences are functional. Central to maintaining women’s status relative to men.
Minimalist Perspective of Gender Men and women are essentially similar Differences are relatively superficial and socially constructed Dismisses significance of difference
Gender differences in education & workforce (1970s vs. today) 43% of college students were women in the 1970s. Today 57% are. Lots of women are in the work force holding prestigious jobs that no women held in the 1970s.
What contributes to the wage gap Occupations men and women are in. Women's jobs are devalued and pay less.
Reasons for first intercourse (Men vs. Women) Most popular for women is affection for partner. Most popular for men is curiosity/readiness for sex. This leaves young women more vulnerable to exploitation.
Cultural Model of Romance Held to dif standards: Men achieve status through academics, careers, sports. Women through being beautiful. Sequence of relationships: Woman is pretty & available. Boy treats her well. She allows intimacy. Compensation for unequal attractiveness.
Marriage Market Search
Evidence that race is a social construction Not biological. Changes over time (census). History. Countires. Cultural activities.
De facto Unofficial (as in discrimination). Actual segregation but not necessarily by lawful authority.
Prejudice A rigid & unfair generalization. An attitude. Prejudgments.
Discrimination An action. Unfair treatment of an individual or group
Stereotypes Exaggerated description applied to every person in some category.
Segregation Keeping racial groups apart.
Institutional discrimination In the workplace. White privilege-system of advantages. Right of way.
Straw man argument Reducing opponent's points to utter nonsense. Oversimplifying. Impossible for you to lose debate. Cheap shot. Ignore evidence.
Social distance How close can races be? marrigiable? in your country?
Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations Genocide, population transfer, internal colonialism, segregation, assimilation, multiculturalism (pluralism).
Statistical Significance Is your data real or could it be due to random chance?
Hsin Primary Findings: collected data using time diaries. Time mothers spend w/ kids has positive & persistent effect on cognitive outcomes only if the mother has verbal skills.
Minority Groups Groups become minority through expansion of political boundaries and migration.
Social Construction of Race over Time (part 1) Ancient Greece culture & language. Pocahontas social status. Johann Blumenbach. Jefferson black inferiority. 1790 Race on the 1st census (free or enslaved). Homestead Act (white settlers; reservations). Jim Crow segregation. Ripley races of Europe.
Social Construction of Race over Time (part 2) 1922 Courts decide who white. Social Security Act, Wagner Act (protect American workers & exclude non-whites). 1954 Legal segregation ends. Interracial marriage. 2000 census allows more than one race (controversial).
Race in America: Historical Origins (part 1) Colonial period: Indentured servitude dominates economy. African slaves arrived early, worked as equals with indentured servants. Poor conditions, difficult to get out of debt; blacks and whites united together against oppressive upper classes.
Race in America: Historical Origins (part 2) Significant turning points: 1640: Trial and sentencing of John Punch 1676: Bacon’s Rebellion Solidifying racial lines: Division of the “Giddy Multitude” White servants given authority over blacks
2000 Census race & ethnic distributions 75% white. 12.5% hispanic. 12% black. 4% asian. 1% native american. 2% 2 races. 6% other.
de jure By law. (legal discrimination) Segregation by law.
Racism Prejudice and discrimination on basis of race. A system of oppression based on race; involves one group oppressing another. Based on this definition, only the dominant group can be racist.
White privilege “White privilege is about concealing ‘race’ to build a ‘colorblind’ society.” Unearned advantages.
Social Distance Scale I would accept a (member of this category) as a . . . 1Family member by marriage 2Close friend 3Neighbor 4Co-worker 5Speaking acquaintance 6Visitor to my country 7I would bar from my country
Population transfer Dominant group expels minority group.
Internal Colonialism Dominant group exploits minority.
Assimilation Dominant group absorbs minority.
Multiculturalism (pluralism) Dominant group encourages racial & ethnic variation; no longer a dominant group when successful.
Hard Choices Kathleen Gerson How Women Decide about Work, Career, and Motherhood
Rise of Breadwinner Role Emergence of industrial capitalism Labor movements Man as wage-earner Cult of domesticity mid 19th century Male power and privilege – head of household
Challenges to Breadwinner Role Decline in men’s wages – 1970s Rise in women’s employment Alternatives to marriage Separation of marriage and parenthood
Good Provider Role Define self as primary earner Resist caretaking and domestic work
Flight From Commitment No significant parental involvement Childless, or estranged after divorce
Nurturing Father Parenting – both economic and caretaking Shared economic responsibilities Involved fathers – but not equal or primary caretaker
Major changes in the American Family 70% of families were married couples in 1970. Only 52% in 2003.
Men who help vs. those who don't Second Shift Happier family life Not like own father Strong male identity No power struggle Elaborate notion of father’s role Wife facilitated involvement Housework – “work” not “women’s work” Draw line at work
Created by: punkaloo