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Kasey2004 Flashcards

Chapter 7

alimentary canal another name for the digestive system
absorption process by which digested nutrients are sent into the bloodstream by passing through capillaries that are located in the walls of the small intestine
upper GI tract begins at the mouth or oral cavity where the breakdown of food is started
oral cavity includes lips, cheeks, teeth, palate, salivary glands and the tongue
palate another name for the roof of the mouth
pharynx throat
esophagus muscular tube, 9-10 inches in length, that extends from the pharynx to the stomach and allows food to pass down the throat to the stomach
peristalsis involuntary contractions for the passage of food
stomach pouchlike organ located in the left side of the abdomen; temporary storage area for food
chyme semi-fluid mixture of partially digested food and secretions
lower GI tract consists of the small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
small intestine small bowel; longest organ of the GI tract
duodenum shortest segment of the small intestine
jejunum middle segment of the small intestine
ileum most inferior segment of the small intestine
large intestine measures 5-6 feet and has three sections; functions to absorb water, secrete mucus, and eliminate digestive wastes
cecum first part of the large intestine, saclike structure on the right side of the abdomen
colon second section of the large intestine, has four parts; the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon
rectum the last part of the large intestine
appendix attached to cecum, has no known digestive function
ascending colon found under the liver
transverse colon found horizontally above the small intestine
descending colon located near the spleen and moves down the left side of the abdomen
sigmoid colon descends down through the pelvic cavity and joins with the rectum
anus external opening of the digestive tract where solid waste is excreted through
feces solid body waste; stool
defecation process by which solid waste products are excreted from the body
liver largest gland of the body; aids the digestive process by producing bile
bile yellow-green secretion containing bile acids and bile salts that emulsify down fat
gallbladder found under the liver, stores bile
pancreas located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, responsible for production of insulin
insulin hormone produced by the pancreas, regulates blood sugar
col/o colon, large intestine
colon/o colon, large intestine
gastr/o stomach
or/o mouth
stomat/o mouth
esophag/o esophagus
duoden/o duodenum
ile/o ileum
an/o anus
bil/i bile
chol/e bile
hepat/o liver
jejun/o jejunum
pancreat/o pancreas
proct/o rectum
rect/o rectum
lip/o fat
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
enter/o small intestine
cyt/o cell
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
peritone/o peritoneum
pharyng/o pharynx
lith/o stone
lapar/o abdominal wall
cholecyst/o gallbladder
dys painful, abnormal
en within
intra within
hyper excessive, above
hypo below, deficient
mal bad
sub below
trans across, through
epi above, upon
peri surrounding
dia thorough, complete
lithiasis presence of stones
logist one who specializes
lysis destruction
ia condition
eal pertaining to
al pertaining to
osis condition
iasis abnormal
itis inflammation
ectomy removal of
stomy creating a new opening
plasty surgical repair
scope instrument for viewing
scopy process of viewing
pepsia digestion
emesis vomiting
graphy process of recording, a picture
gastroenterologist physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases of the digestive tract
internist diagnose and treat the disease of the internal organs
proctologist specialist treating and diagnosing illness of the colon, rectum, and anus
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) stomach contents flow upward into the esophagus (burning feeling in throat, mouth)
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
peptic ulcer lesion of the mucous membranes of the digestive system caused by bacteria H pylori
gastric ulcer peptic ulcer occurring in the stomach
duodenal ulcer peptic ulcer found in the upper part of the small intestine, duodenum
cirrhosis degenerative disease of the liver causes injury to the liver cells
colorectal cancer malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
Crohn's disease chronic inflammation of the digestive tract
choleithiasis hard deposit in the gallbladder, gallstones
polyps small growths found in the membranes lining the colon
diverticulosis herniation of the diverticula or sacs of the wall of the intestine, sigmoid colon
diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticula
dyspepsia indigestion
emesis vomiting
colitis inflammation of the colon
ileitis inflammation of the ileum
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) abdominal pain, gas, bloating, constipation, or diarrhea caused by irregular motility of the intestines
hepatitis inflammation of the liver, viral hepatitis is the most common type
hepatitis virus A infectious hepatitis transmitted by contaminated food or water and poor hygiene
hepatitis virus B transmitted by blood and bodily fluids from person to person
hepatitis virus C transmitted by blood through intravenous, needles, transfusions
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
hernia protrusion of organ or part through a wall of the cavity where it is located
intestinal obstruction complete or partial blockage of the flow of the contents of the intestines
intussusception slipping of one part of the intestine into the opening of the adjacent intestinal part
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
anorexia lack or loss of appetite, causing the inability to eat
abdominal ultrasound noninvasive procedure to visualize the internal organs using high frequency sound waves
barium enema x-rays of the lower GI tract after barium sulfate is inserted into the rectum
upper GI series barium swallow, barium sulfate swallowed by mouth flowing into the esophagus and stomach while x-rays are taken
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder
ostomy surgical creation of an artifiical opening or stoma between an organ and body surface
colostomy surgical artificial opening for the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface for expelling feces
herniorrhaphy surgical repair of a hernia
endoscope instrument used to visualize internal organs
colonoscopy endoscopic visualization of the colon from rectum to cecum
gastroscopy endoscopic visualization of the stomach or esophagus
sigmoidoscopy endoscopic visualization of the rectum, sigmoid colon, some of the descending colon
MRI noninvasive scanning procedure showing visualization of fluid, soft tissue and bony structures without using radiation
CT SCAN noninvasive x-ray procedure using computer images that show detailed visualization of the tissue structure
Created by: Kasey2004