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Final-Earth Science

QuestionAnswer
Which one of the following would most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers? deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope
Which of the following is NOT true of deep ocean trenches? they are geologically very stable
Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are ________. all of these
The oceans cover approximately ________ percent of Earth's surface. 70
How do calcareous oozes form? the particles are precipitated in warm, surface waters and sink to the bottom
________ develop where oceanic lithosphere bends downward and sinks into the mantle. Deep ocean trenches
Fetch is ________. none of these
A sand bar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a ________. none of these
Which ocean has the greatest average depth? Pacific
The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ________. continental shelf
Which one of the following concerning mid-ocean ridges is false? sediments include thick siliceous ooze deposits and sandy turbidite beds
It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by ________ turbidity currents
The presence of which one of the following would indicate that the land had been uplifted or that sea level had fallen? elevated marine terrace
Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ________ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere. right
Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is ________. equal to one-half the wavelength
The BEST definition of the outer edge of the continental shelf is that point where ________. a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs
A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a ________. tombolo
Which one of the following would you NOT associate with turbidity currents? formation of seamounts
Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of ________. hydrogenous sediment
A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a ________. spit
Which one of the following is NOT part of the continental margin? continental trench
The daily tidal range is GREATEST during ________ tide. spring
Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges? all of these
Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion? sea arch
Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called ________. terrigenous sediment
Seamounts ________. are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach is ________. both caused by obliquely breaking waves and called beach drift
One result of wave refraction is that wave energy is concentrated ________. on headlands projecting into the water
Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true? the Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere
When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This process is termed ________. refraction
Fetch refers to ________. a large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves
Which of the following is a tidal current? both flood and ebb tide
Manganese nodules are an example of ________. hydrogenous sediment
Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves? breakwater
Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ________ of their path of motion in the Southern Hemisphere. left
The movement of sand parallel to the shore ________. all of these
A poleward-moving ocean current is ________. warm
Which one of the following salts is most abundant in seawater? sodium chloride
The crests of mid-oceanic ridges ________. contain active rift zones
The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed ________. longshore current
The daily tidal range is LEAST during ________ tide. neap
An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a ________. sea stack
A flat, bench-like surface cut in rock along a coast is a ________. wave-cut platform
Which of the following is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion? all of these
Submarine canyons found on the continental slope and are believed to have been created ________. none of these
The continental rise is located ________. between an abyssal plain and continental slope
An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for a ________. sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back
The ________ Ocean is largest. Pacific
Large estuaries are more common on a ________ coastline. submergent
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from ________. prevailing winds
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the ________. troposphere
On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is reflected back to space? 30%
Ozone is concentrated in the ________. stratosphere
Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? nitrogen
Which one of the gases listed below is more important meteorologically (that is, is more important in weather processes) than the others? carbon dioxide
Which are mechanisms of heat transfer? all of these
The two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are ________. water vapor and carbon dioxide
Which one of the following statements is true about the equinoxes? days and nights are equal in length everywhere
The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on ________. March 21
On the AVERAGE, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature ________. drops about 6.5C
Which one of the following latitudes best represents the location where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on April 21?
The North Pole has a higher noon Sun angle than New York City on this date. none of these
Ozone filters out most of the ________ radiation in sunlight. ultraviolet
Earth receives energy from the Sun in this way. radiation
On this date the length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator. December 21
At noon on February 21, the Sun is overhead ________. at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
The wavelengths of radiation emitted by Earth are ________. longer than those emitted by the Sun
The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as ________. ozone
A very important control of the DAILY range of temperature is ________. the amount of water vapor in the air
The tropopause is the boundary between ________ the troposphere and stratosphere
Practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere. troposphere
Fifty percent of the gases making up the atmosphere are found below ________. 3 ½ miles (5.6 km)
The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ________. greenhouse effect
The 90 angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Cancer on ________. greenhouse effect
With which of the following is dust in the atmosphere associated? all of these
The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed ________. stratus
The cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflower-like" structure is called ________. cumulus
This term is used to describe clouds found in the middle height range. alto
High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extended wispy fibers are termed ________. cirrus
This term is used to describe clouds that produce precipitation. nimbo
These clouds are often called "fair weather" clouds. cumulus
This cloud sometimes produces "mare's tails." cirrus
This cloud type is confined to the middle height range. altostratus
Hail is most commonly associated with ________. cumulonimbus
A wintertime form of precipitation that consists of small ice particles is called ________. sleet
This fog forms in valleys at night. radiation fog
When warm moist air moves over a cold surface, ________ fog may result. advection
Which one of the fogs listed below may be categorized as an evaporation fog? steam
The amount of water vapor in the air (by volume) usually does not exceed ________. 4%
When using a psychrometer and the two temperatures read nearly the same, you can conclude that ________. the air has a high relative humidity
Under what circumstances could the relative humidity exceed 100% without producing condensation in the air? there are no condensation nuclei
The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is ________. cooling by expansion of air
If air at sea level with a temperature of 27C is forced up a mountain slope and the air's dew point at the condensation level is 14C, at what elevation will condensation begin? 1300 meters
Which of the following would NOT be associated with stable atmospheric conditions? afternoon thunder showers
Deserts such as the Great Basin, Gobi, and Takla Makan are examples of ________. rainshadow deserts
The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called ________. condensation
The term ________ is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without passing through the liquid state. sublimation
The process by which water vapor changes directly to a solid is called ________. deposition
This process results in the release of about 600 calories of latent heat per gram of water. condensation
What is the dew point for the conditions listed above? 20C
Standard sea level pressure in millibars is 1013 mb
Standard sea level pressure in inches of mercury is ________. 29.92 inches
Which of these instruments is NOT used to measure air pressure? anemometer
An altimeter is an adaptation of the ________. aneroid barometer
Which of these factors influence the magnitude of the Coriolis force? both wind speed and latitude
Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called ________. isobars
Closely spaced isobars often indicate ________. high winds
A steep pressure gradient ________. produces strong winds
Widely spaced isobars often indicate ________. light winds
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow ________. counterclockwise and toward the center
In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a high pressure system blow ________. clockwise and outward from the center
If Earth were not rotating ________. air would move directly from high to low pressure
Upper air winds ________. are generally faster than surface winds
High air pressure systems are usually associated with ________. all of these
In the Southern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system blow ________. clockwise and toward the center
If stormy weather is approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be ________. falling
Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds? westerlies
Another name for the area of subtropical highs is ________. horse latitudes
This pressure zone is associated with abundant precipitation and warm temperatures. equatorial low
When are upper air winds fastest? in winter
A Santa Ana (or Chinook or Foehn) wind is a ________. very dry, warm wind flowing down a mountain slope
A sea breeze usually originates during the ________. day and flows toward the land
Fast moving currents of air found near the top of the troposphere are called ________. jet streams
What is the technical name for a high pressure center? anticyclone
This air mass may produce an occasional "northeaster" in the winter. mP
The air masses that have the greatest influence on weather conditions in the central United States are ________. cP and mT
When an area is experiencing several consecutive days of rather constant weather, it is probably ________. air-mass weather
The eye of a hurricane is ________. warmer than the rest of the storm
On a weather map, ________ fronts are shown by a line with triangular points on one side. cold
Hurricanes generally are ________. all of these
This air mass is the source of much of the moisture for precipitation in the central and eastern United States. mT
Typhoon is another name for a ________. hurricane
A cT air mass is ________. warm and dry
The precipitation associated with a warm front typically arrives ________ the actual frontal boundary ________. considerably ahead of
When a hurricane moves onto land, it rapidly loses its punch; that is, the storm declines in intensity. Which of the factors listed below contribute to this loss of punch? both friction and lack of warm, moist air
If an observer sees cirrus clouds, followed later by cirrostratus, and then altostratus, he or she is witnessing the approach of a ________ front. warm
Which one of the following statements is NOT true of tornadoes? usually occur along the warm front of a mid-latitude cyclone
Cold fronts and warm fronts in the middle latitudes are often associated with a ________. both middle-latitude cyclone and low pressure
An air mass from the Gulf of Mexico is labeled ________. mT
In the Northern Hemisphere, tornadoes are most frequent during the ________. April-June period
This air mass often originates as a different air mass in Siberia and is subsequently altered. cP
Which of the following should have the steepest pressure gradient? tornado
Usually ________ fronts produce several hours of moderate-to-gentle precipitation over a large region. warm
Tornadoes most often move TOWARDS what direction? northeast
When an active cold front overtakes a warm front ________. an occluded front forms
An mP air mass is ________. cold and humid
A wind shift from south or southwest to northwest is commonly associated with the passage of a ________ front. cold
Which of the following is considered to be a boundary between two different air masses? both warm front and cold front
After the center of a mature wave cyclone passes, you should expect ________. barometric pressure to rise
The surface features of ________ are known only through satellite radar mapping. Venus
Carbon dioxide is the major gas in the atmosphere of Venus. True
In the Ptolemaic (Greek) model of the universe the ________. Earth was in the center of the universe
________ meteorites are thought to be analogous in composition to Earth's core. Iron
The high surface temperatures of this planet have been attributed to the greenhouse effect. Venus
The belt (orbit) of the asteroids is located between ________. Jupiter and Mars
________ is the principal gas in the Venusian atmosphere and also a minor component of the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Carbon dioxide
The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles. nebular hypothesis
The first modern astronomer to propose a Sun-centered universe was ________. Nicolaus Copernicus
Which one of the following is not found on Mars? H2O-rich atmosphere
Which of the following statements concerning ring satellites of the planets is true? consist of concentrations of particles generally smaller than 10 meters in diameter
This scientist was the first to use the telescope in astronomy. Galileo
Which one of the following is most likely to be associated both with impact craters and with volcanic calderas that originate by collapse? landslides and other mass wasting movements along the walls of the depression
________ has the great, dark spot on its surface. Neptune
As the solar system was forming, ________ came closest to undergoing nuclear fusion and becoming a second sun. Jupiter
Which one of the terrestrial planets has a surface landscape similar to that of the older areas of the Moon? Mercury
Which of these lunar features is the oldest? lunar highlands
Which one of the following statements is a logical explanation for why the Venusian atmosphere contains much more carbon dioxide than Earth's atmosphere? Venusian atmospheric and surface temperatures are much lower than Earth's
Selected Answer: Venusian atmospheric and surface temperatures are much lower than Earth's
________ refers to the bright head of a comet. Coma
Which one of the following is not true of Jupiter? a rotational speed slower than Mercury
________, a moon orbiting Jupiter, has an unusually smooth, uncratered, ice-covered surface. Europa
Most of the Moon's craters were produced by ________. the impact of debris (meteoroids)
________ has a hot, turbulent atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide. Venus
The smallest planet in the solar system is ________. Mercury
Galileo observed several features using the telescope. Which one of the following did he NOT discover? the two moons of Mars
A first magnitude star is ________ times brighter than a 5th magnitude star. 10
Most stars are in this stage of evolution. main-sequence star
The final stage for a star which is as massive as the Sun is a ________. black dwarf
These stars are produced during a supernova event. white dwarf
Which color stars have the coolest surface temperature? red
A star in which light cannot escape because of the immense gravitational pull at its surface is called a ________. black hole
The Sun is considered an average star. True
When a main-sequence star has exhausted the fuel in the inner region, it becomes a ________. red giant
The measure of a star's brightness is called its ________. magnitude
Possibly the most cataclysmic event to occur in nature is ________. a supernova
Which main-sequence stars are the least massive? red
The distance to stars can be determined from ________. stellar parallax
Which main-sequence stars are the most massive? blue
The Sun belongs to this class of stars. main-sequence star
The point in stellar evolution when a star has used up all its fuel and is radiating away its remaining thermal energy as light is the ________ stage. white dwarf
This property of a star can be determined from its color. surface temperature
The final stage in the evolution of the most massive stars is a ________. black hole
Our galaxy is called the ________. Milky Way galaxy
Which color stars have the highest surface temperature? blue
Hubble's law states that galaxies are receding from us at a speed that is proportional to their ________. distance
One of the most common units used to express stellar distance is the ________. light-year
Which one of the objects listed below has the largest size? galaxies
Based on the observed red shifts in the spectral lines of distant galaxies, astronomers conclude that ________. the universe is expanding
The most dense stars known to exist are ________. black holes
The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called ________. the Big Bang
Created by: schoolmom on 2011-05-01



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