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Patho Glossary 1

QuestionAnswer
The study of changes in cell/tissure structure related to disease or death. Pathology
the study of how disease affects body function. Pathophysiology
Having the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions. Health
Being unable to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions. Disease
The study of the cause of disease Etiology
A disease, condition, or trait that is inherited as a result of a single gene. Genetic
A disease, condition or trait that is present at birth. Congenital
A disease, condition or trait that develops because of being exposed to something during your life. Acquired
Without a clearly identified cause. Idiopathic
Evidence of disease that is objective and can be seen, measured and recorded. Signs
Evidence of a disease that is subjective and cannot be seen, measured and recorded. Symptoms
The events that lead to the development of a disease and the signs and symptoms that occur as the disease progresses. Pathogenesis
A disease that develops and resolves quickly. Acute
A disease that develops gradually and last 3 months or longer. Chronic
The lessening in severity of the symptoms of a disease. Remission
An increase in the severity of a disease or any of its signs or symptoms. Exacerbation
A condition that is confined to one area. Local
A condition that affects the entire body. Systemic
A procedure that utilizes a fiber optic camera to view structures within the body. Endoscopy
The ability of an object to stop or slow radiation. Radiodensity
A visual recording of differences in radiodensity of anatomical structures. X-Rays
X-rays that utilize a contrast media to increase the radiodensity of selected fluids within the body, producing an image of the structures containing the fluid. Contrast X-Rays
A visual recording of the differences in the rate of return & intesity of soundwaves reflected of of objects within the body. Ultrasound
A recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac conduction system. Electrocardiogram
A recording of the electrical activity of the brain, most often the cerebral cortex. Electroencephalogram
Any procedure used to measure a persons ability to move air or the capacities othe the respiratory system. Oftern referred to as PFTs (Pulmonary function tests) Spirometry
The use of chemicals to kill cells within the body. Two main types of chemotherapy are used - to kill cancers cells or microorganisms Chemotherapy
The use of drugs to treat disease. Pharmacological
Any form of treatment that relieves signs and symptoms without curing a disease. May include the use of medication (such as a decongestant or pain reliever), therapeutic message, counseling, physical therapy... Palliative
A prediction of the likely outcome or consequence of having a disease. Prognosis
A consequence of a previous disease. (Example: shingles as a result of having chicken pox) Sequela
A morbid process or event occurring during a disease that is not an essential part of the disease, although it may result from it. (Example: blindness is a complication often associated with diabetes). Complications
A disease likely to cause death. Terminal
The transfer of a harmful amount of energy. The energy may be mechanical, electrical, radiation, or thermal. Trauma
Lacking in something the is essential. (Vitamin, glucose, protein, oxygen, water....) Deficiency
Being exposed to a toxic level of something. Intoxication
To increase in size. Hypertrophy
To decrease in size. Atrophy
An increase in the rate of mitosis and therefore cell number. Hyperplasia
A change in cell or tissue structure. Metaplasia
Irregular cell or tissue structure. Often considered a potentially cancerous change. Dysplasia
Growth of cells and tissue into new areas, resulting in a tumore. May be benign or malignant. Neoplasia
A protective response to injury or infections. Causes an increase in blood flow and paing in the affected region, as well as leukocytosos. Inflammation
Chemicals that cause a fever. Pyrogens
An increase in the number of white blood cells to more than 10,000 per cubic mm. A WBC count of 15,000-25,000 commonly occurs as a result of infection, inflammation or hemorrhage. Leukocytosis
The excess fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Contains high levels of protein and neutrophils when compared to normal tissue fluid. Exudate
A thin, clear, watery fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Serous Exudate
A thick, creamy, white or yellow fluid that accumulates at the site of infection. Also called pus. Purulent Exudate
A response to injury or infection that leads ot the production on pus. Supperative Inflammation
Replacing damaged tissue through the process of mitosis, restoring the tissue to its original condition. Regeneration
Replacing damaged tissue with scar tissue. Repair
The binding together of two surfaces by scar tissue. Adhesions
The over production of scar tissue that sometimes occurs in the dermis or subcutaneous layer and results in a mass of scar tissue that is often tender or painful. Keloid Scarring
The shortening of scar tissue over time OR the shortening of muscle tissue as a result of fibrotic changes. Contracture
The narrowing of any canal or opening, such as the intestine, a blood vessel, or a heart valve. Stenosis
The process of hardening. Can occur as the result of scar formation or the accumulation of deposits known as plaque. Sclerosis
Tissue death. Necrosis
An early stage in the development of a disease or infection that is characterized by a lack of appetitie and lack of energy. The time whan a person feels they are coming down with something. Prodromal Stage
A severe, systemic allergic response that is characterized by vasodilation (which causes a severe drop in blood pressure) and bronchoconstriction (resulting in severe difficulty breathing). Anaphylaxis
The immune system's constant search for an antigen. Immunosurveillance
The immune system's ability to recognize and not attack normally occuring tissues within the body. Immunotolerance
The development of an infection from the time the infectious organism enters the body until the appearance of hte first clinical signs and symptoms. Incubation
The time during an infection when clinical signs and symptoms begin to develop. Acute stage
A nonmalignant neoplasm Benign
A cancerouse neoplasm Malignant
The development of new blood vessels, espescially capillaries. Angiogenesis
Proteins produced by tumor cells that can be detected in screening tests of the person's blood. Tumor Markers
A malignancy that originates in epithelial tissues. Carcinoma
A malignancy that originates in connective tissue. Sarcoma
A malignancy that originates in the tissue of the nervouse system. Glioma
The process of developing a malignant neoplasm. Carcinogenesis
Carcinogens that increase the rate of cancer cell production by activating oncogens. Initiators (of cancer)
Carcinogens that decrease the body's ability to find and fight cancer cellls by damaging tumor suppressing genes. Promotors (of cancer)
Created by: Baker RAD 2012 on 2011-04-16



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