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Nutrition CH2 - WK1


Carbohydrate foods provide practical energy (calorie) sources because of their availability, relatively low cost, and storage capacity; structures vary from simple to complex to provide both quick and extended energy for the body.
CHO Carbon Hydrase Oxide
Monosaccharides Simple sugar; Simple carbohydrate
Monosaccharides Class Members Glucose, fructose, galactose
Glucose mainly from starches; Basic single sugar in body metabolism
Fructose Found mainly in fruits and is widely used in processed foods
Galactose Comes mainly from digestion of milk sugar
Disaccharides Double sugar; simple carbohydrates
Disaccharides class members sucrose, lactose, maltose
Sucrose Common table sugar Made up of glucose and fructose – once digested becomes glucose
Lactose Sugar found in milk – w/o this can't absorb calcium and phosphorus
Maltose Derived in the body from intermediate digestion of starch – this is what happens before it becomes glucose in the body
Polysaccharides Starch Glycogen Dietary Fiber
Glycogen stored form in body – stored in liver and pancreas and muscles Found in animal muscle tissue Similar in structure to starch Crucial to metabolism and energy balance
Starch Most important dietary carbohydrate Found in grains, legumes, & some veggies Cooking makes digestion of starch easier
Whole grains retain the bran layer, inner germ, and endosperm, including the nutrients naturally found in the plant
Enriched grains refined grains that have nutrients added back to them
Nutritive sweeteners Sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol) – increase blood sugar slowly; prevents sugar spikes
Nonnutritive sweeteners Artificial sweeteners in food – up to 700 x more sweet than table sugar
Dietary Fiber Not digestible Important in health promotion and disease prevention
Three types of dietary fiber Cellulose, Noncellulose polysaccharides, Lignin
Daily recommended dietary fiber 38 g/day for men 25 g/day for women
Cellulose Remains undigested in the gastrointestinal tract and provides bulk to a diet Bulk helps move the food mass through the intestine Examples: Stems, leaves of vegetables Coverings of seeds and grains
Noncellulose polysaccharides Absorb water and swell to a larger bulk Examples: pectins, gums, mucilages, algal substances
Lignin Only noncarbohydrate type of dietary fiber Woody parts of plants
Sudden increases in fiber can result in what? gas, bloating, constipation
Basic fuel supply of Carbs Provides energy for physical activities and all work of body cells
Reserve fuel supply of carbs Provided by glycogen Maintains normal blood glucose level
Special Tissue Functions of Carbohydrates Protect cells from depressed metabolic function Vital emergency fuel for heart muscle Brain dependent on minute-to-minute supply of glucose – low blood sugar can result in brain damage and death Carbohydrates regulate proteins and fat
Rapid breakdown of fats in the body (seen in diabetics) in urine in ketones
Starches Provide fundamental complex carbohydrates
Sugars High sugar diets carry health risks – avg American eats ¾ lb of sugar per week Too much sugar can cause diabetes and also tooth decay – can cause cardiac problems
Mouth Mechanical or muscle functions break food mass into smaller particles Salivary amylase, secreted by parotid glands, act on starch to begin its breakdown
Stomach Peristalsis continues mechanical digestive process Gastric secretions contain no specific enzymes for breakdown of carbohydrates
Small intestine Peristalsis continues mechanical digestion Pancreatic secretions
Maltase work on the disaccharides
Dietary Reference Intake of carbs 45% to 65% of adult’s total caloric intake should come from carbohydrate foods Limit sugar to no more than 25% of calories consumed
two basic types of carbohydrates simple and complex
Created by: MarieG