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Blood

QuestionAnswer
Plasma The liquid part of the blood that contains mostly water (91%), protein,and other solutes (ie. amino acids, carbohydrates, cellular waste products, nutrients, hormones, and lipids.)
What are the four plasma proteins? Albumins 57%, Globulins 38%, Fibrogens 4%, and Prothrombin 1%.
What solute is the most adundant in the plasma? Plasma proteins.
This helps thicken and maintain the blood volume. Albumins
This protein includes the antibodies that help protect us from infections. Globulins
A protein that is necessary for blood clotting. Fibrinogens
How is blood serum obtained from whole blood? Serum is obtained by allowing it to clot in the bottom of a tube and then pouring off the liquid serum.
What does blood serum lack? Blood serum is plasma minus the clotting factor of fibrogen. It still has antibodies, therefore making it useful to treat patients.
What are the formed elements of the blood? Erythrocytes (red blood cells), Leukocytes (white blood cells), and Thrombocytes (platelets). Plasma is not a formed element it is a vehicle to transport solubles to a destination.
What are the two sub-categories that leukocytes are broken into? Granular leukocytes, which have granules in their cytoplasm. Nongranular leukocytes, which do not have granules in their cytoplasm.
What are the three granular leukocytes and their functions? Elevated amounts of Neutrophils is indicative of bacteria infection, Eosinophils is indicative of a parasitic infection, and Basophils is indicative of an allergic reaction.
Red blood cells are biconcaved shaped disk that do not contain a nucleus, what does this aid in? Red blood cells shape increases the surface area allowing more oxygen to be carried throughout the body.
Do red blood cells have mitosis? No, because RBC have no nuclei they do not go through mitosis (cell reproduction), however, more RBC are created in the bone marrow.
What are the two causes of Anemia? Either their are not enough RBC or not enough heme for oxygen to attach to on RBC.
How does blood facilitate in distributing heat through the body? Warm blood from the body core moves to surface where it is cooled and exchanged in the body core.
Colloid A protein that draws fluid back into the vascular system.
How will a starving person's body respond to to protein production? The human body metabolizes protein from fat, sugars, and muscle. Once these stores have been depleted the body will then metabolize the protein that is responsible for maintaing colloid osmotic pressure causing the body to have a pot belly appearance.
What are the functions of the blood? Maintain hydrostatic pressure, protect against disease, plugs damaged vessels, maintain stability in the interstitial fluid, distribute heat, and transport oxygen and waste.
How does a RBC carry oxygen? Oxygen attaches to the RBC heme in the lungs for distribution throughout the body.
When a RBC unites with oxygen what is formed? oxyhemoglobin
Carbaminohemoglobin Blood rich in CO2.
How is a RBC different once oxygen is attached? A RBC will appear bright red when it is bound with oxygen and dark red when no oxygen is present.
What is the life span of a RBC? 120 days
How is a damaged RBC destroyed? Macrophages destroy RBC primarily in the liver but in the red pulp of the spleen also.
How is the quanity of RBC maintained? Erythropoietin is released during periods of oxygen deficiency which stimulates RBC production.
What vitamins are necessary for RBC development? Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Iron, and Vitamin C.
How will a patient with anemia appear? Pale from the lack of oxygen and they will lack energy.
What vitamin helps RBC absorb oxygen? Iron.
Bilirubin Orange pigment resulting from the breakdown of hemoglobin.
When there a person has too much bilirubin in the blood stream what will happen? The person will have jaundice.
What correlation does a monocyte and a macrophage have? A macrophage is a specialized monocyte, which is a WBC also, that left the circulatory system and went to other tissues in the body.
What does an increased WBC count greater than 10k indicate? an acute infection.
What does a decreased WBC count less than 5k indicate? A disease process.
CBC with DIFF A test that lists the percentages of the types of WBC in a blood sample.
Thrombocyte An incomplete cell or portion of cells that clump together at the site of hemorrhage to form a blockage in a small bleed.
What is an alternate name for a thrombocyte? Platelet.
Plasma proteins The most abundant of the dissolved substances in the blood that remains in the blood and interstitial fluids. Ordinarily not used as fluids.
Albumins The smallest protein but the most abundant that an important factor in the process of osmotic pressure in the blood stream.
Which protein is synthesized in the liver and transports lipids and fat-soluble vitamins? Alpha and Beta Globulins
Which protein is produced int the lymphatic tissues that is used to kick start the immune system? Gamma Globulins
Which plasma protein is synthesized in the liver and is the largest protein? Fibrogens.
What are the components of blood? Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, and Nitrogen.
Which components are the non-functional components of blood? Nitrogen.
Which components are the functional components of blood? Carbon dioxide and Oxygen.
How is fat transported through the blood? Lipids, which are non-water soluble, combine with proteins, which are water soluble, to create a water soluble lipoprotein
Very Low Density lipoproteins (VLDL) Protein with a GREAT amount of fat.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) Protein with a lot of fat.
High density lipoproteins (HDL) Proteins with a little fat.
HDL/LDL The ratio of good cholestrol to bad cholestrol.
What is the goal of HDL/LDL? To keep the ratio about 0.3 but above 0.4 is ideal.
What are the building blocks of proteins? Amino Acids.
What are the building blocks of Amino Acids? Vitamins.
This is transported to the liver de-animated for use as an energy source and used to manufacture proteins? Amino Acid
Urea Produced from the breakdown of proteins and excreted in the urine.
Uric Acid Produced form the breakdown of nucleic acid and excreted in the urine.
What compounds are regulated through various processes to maintain stable blood concentrations? Sodium, chloride, potassium, bicarbonate.
What nutrients are needed for plasma? Nitrogen compounds (amino-acids), Urea, Urine, and plasma electrolytes.
The stoppage of bleeding in a damaged blood vessel. Hemostasis
What are the steps to hemostasis? 1. Vasospasms causing the vessel to clamp down on itself with smooth muscle. 2. A platelet plug formation 3.Coagulation
What is the process of coagulation? Prothrombin is converted into thrombin, thrombrin breaks fibrinogen into fibrin strands, Fibrin strands form a mesh like structure, platelets are caught in the mesh like structure causing a blood clot.
Thrombus A blood clot abnormally formed in a blood vessel.
Embolus A piece of a thrombus that moves.
What is the difference
Created by: epowells on 2011-04-11



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