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The Urinary System

Antiseptic A substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
Arteriole The smallest branch of an artery
Bowman's Capsule The cup-shaped end of a renal tubule containing a glomerulus; AKA: glomerular capsule
Cortex The outer lyer of a body organ or structure
Cystoscope An instrument used to view the interior of the bladder.
Dialysate Solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood; AKA: "bath"
Dialysis The proess of removing waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to. Hemodialysis involves passing the blood through an atificial kidney for filtering impurities. Peritoneal Dialysis introduces fluid into the abdomen through a catheter.
Dwell Time Length of time the dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis
Fossa A hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone. In kidney transplantation the donor kidney is surgically placed in the iliac fossa of the recipient.
Glomerular Filtrate Substances that filter out of the blood through the thin walls of the glomeruli (water, salts,sugar, and nitrogenous waste products such as urea, creatinine, and uric acid)
Glomerulus A ball-shaped collection of very tiny coiled and interwined capillaries, located in the cortex of the kidney.
Hilum The depresssion, or pit, of an organ where the vessels and nerves enter.
Meatus An opening or tunnel through any part of the body, as in the urinary meatus, whish is the external opening of the urethra.
Medulla The most internal part of a structure or organ
Micturition The act of eliminating urine from the bladder; AKA: Voiding; urination
Nephrolith A kidney stone; AKA: Renal Calculus
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum (the membrane lining the abdominal cavity).
Pyelitis Inflammation of the renal pelvis
Renal Pelvis The central collecting part of the kidney that narrows into the large upper end of the ureter. It receives urine through the calyces and drains it into the ureters.
Residual Urine Urine that remains in the bladder after urination
Toxic Poisonous
Turbid Cloudy
Uremia The presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; AKA: Azotemia
Ureter One of a pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder
Urethra A small tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
Urinary Incontinence Inability to control urination; The inability to retain urine in the bladder.
Urine The fluid released by the kidneys, transported by the ureters, retained in the bladder, and eliminated through the urethra. Normal urine is clear, straw-colored, and slightly acidic
Albuminuria The presence of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin. Same as proteinuria
Anuria The cessation (stopping) of urine production, or a urinary output of less than 100 ml per day
Bacteriuria The presence of bacteria in the urine
Dysuria Painful urination
Fatigue A state of exhaustion or loss of strength or endurance, such as may follow strenuous physical activity.
Frequency The number of repetitions of any phenomenon within a fixed period of time such as the number of heartbeats per minute; in the case of urinary frequency, urination at short intervals (frequently)
Glycosuria Abnormal presence of sugar, expecially glucose, in the urine
Hematuria Abnormal presence of blood in the urine
Ketonuria Presence of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine
Malaise A vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort often marking the onset of disease or infection
Oliguria Secretion of a diminshed amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; Scanty urine output
Nocturia Urination, especially excessive, at night;
Polydipsia Excessive thirst
Polyuria Excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine
Pyuria The presence of an excessive number of white blood cells in the urine, usually a sign of an infection of the urinary tract; pus in the urine
Urgency A feelin of the need to void urine immediately
Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder
Glomerulonephritis (acute) An inflammation of the glomeulus of the kidneys
Hydronephrosis Distension of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in a ureter
Polycystic Kidney Disease A hereditary disorder of the kidneys in which grapelike fluid-filled sacs or cysts replace normal kidney tissue
Pyelonephritis A bacterial infection of the renal pelvis of the kidney
Catheterization The introduction of a catheter (flexible hollow tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or to remove a fluid.
Cystometrography An examination performed to evaluate bladder tone; measuring bladder pressure during filling and voiding
Cystoscopy The processof viewing the interior of the bladder using a cystoscope
Intravenous Pyelogram Radiographic procedure providing visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladderm and urethra; AKA: Intravenous Pyelography; Excretory Urogram
KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder) AN x-ray of the lower abdomen that defines the size, shape, and location of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. A contrast medium is not used.
Retrograde Pyelogram A radiographic procedure in which small-caliber catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and the renal pelvis
Urinalysis A physical, chemical, or microscopic examination of urine
24-hour Urine Specimen A collection of all the urine excreted by the individual ovr a 24-hour period. The urine is collected in one large container. AKA: Composite Urine Specimen
Voiding Cystourethrogram X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material
Clean-catch Specimen (Midstream Specimen) This collection is used to avoid contamination of the urine specimen from the microorganisms normally present on the external genitalia
First Voided Specimen The patient is instructed to collect the first-voided specimen of the morning and to refridgerate it until it can be taken to the medical office or laboratory
Random Specimen A urine specimen that is collected at any time
Created by: sanzijessica