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The Endocrine System

Acromegaly A chronic metabolic condition characterized by the gradual noticeable enlargement and elongation of thebones of the face, jaw, and extremties due to hypersecretion of the human growth hormone after puberty.
Diabetes Mellitus A disorder of the pancreas in which the beta cells of the islets of langerhans of he pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin, resulting in the body's inabilty to appropriately metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Diabete Insipidus Metabolic disordr characterized by extreme polydipsia and polyuria. Caused by deficiency in secretion of the antidiuretic hormone.
Thyrod Function Tests Tests tha measure the blood levels of the hormones T3, T4, and TSH.
Addison's Disease A life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids resulting from an autoimmune process, a neoplasm, an infection, or a hemorrhage in the gland.
Gigantism A proprtional overgrowth o the body's tissue due to the hypersecretion of the human growth hormone before puberty
Thyroid Stiulatng Hormone A test that measures the cncentation of TSH i the blood
Virilism The development of masculine physcial traits in the female (hair growth, sweat, deep voice, enlargement of clitoris). May be due to an abnormality or dysfunction of the adrenal gland.
Dwarfism Generalized growth retardation of the body due to the deficiency of the human growth hormone; AKA: Congenital Hypopituitarism
Thyroid Storm An acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone. AKA:Thyrotoxicosis
Diabetic Retinopathy A disorder of the blood vessels of the retina of the eye, in which the capillaries of the retina experience localized areas of bulging, hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring.
Thyrtoxicosis An acute,sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone. AKA: Thyroid Storm
Fasting Blood Sugar Blood glucose sample taken usually early in the morning after the person has been without foodor drink since midnight
Cushing's Syndrome A condition of the adrenal gland in which there is a cluster of symptoms occurring as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or A.C.T.H. circulating in the blood.
Hemoglobin A1C A blood test that shows the average level of glucose in an individual's blood durn the last 3 months.
Serm Glucose Tests Measure the amount of glucose in the blood at the time the sample was drawn
Thyroid Scan An exam that determines the position size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning.
Glucose Tolerance Test A test that evaluates the person's ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose load by measuring the glucose levels prior to administration, 30 mnutes after, 1 hour after, 2 hours afte, and 3 hurs after.
Adenohypophysis The anterior pituitary gland
Adenopathy Any disease of a gland, characterized by enlargement
Adenocortical Pertaining to the cortex of he adrenal gland(s).
Androgen Any steroid hormone that increases male characteristics
Cortex Pertaining to the outer region of an organ or structure
Endocrine Gland Gland that secretes directly into bloodstream
Endocrinologist A physician who specializes in the medical practice of treating the diseases and disorders of the endocrie system
Endocrinology The field of medicine that dealswith the study of the endocrine system and of the tratment of the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system
Euthyroid Normally functoning thyroid gland
Glycosuria The presence of sugar in the urine
Grave's Disease Hyperthyroidism
Hypercalcemia Elevated bloo calcim level
Hyperglycemia elevated blood sugar level
Hypergonadism Excessive activity of the ovaries or testes
Hyperinsulinism An excessive amount of insulin in the body
Hyperkalemia An elevated blood potassium level
Hypernatremia An elevated blood sodium level
Hyperthyroidism Overactivity of the thyrod gland. AKA: Grave's Disease
Hypocalcemia Less than normal blood calcium level
Hypoglycemia Less tha normal blood sugar level
Hypokalemia Less than normal bloodpotasium level
Hypothyroidism Less than normal activity of the thyroid gland
Medulla Theintrnal part of a structure or organ
Polydipsia Excessive thirst
Polyphagia Excessive eating
Polyuria Th excretion ofexcessively large amounts of urine
Thyroiditis Inflammation ofthe thyroid gland
Goiter Simple Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland
Gestational Diabetes A disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy dvelop diabetes during the pregnancy
Pancreatic Cancer A life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas
Pancreatitis An acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
Acromegaly A chronic condition characterized by gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, ja, and extremiies due to oversecretion of the pituitary gland after puberty
Cretinism A congenital condition cause b a lack of thyroid secretion. Characterized by dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin, and large tongue.
Estrogen One of te female hormones that promotes the development of female secondary sex characteristics
Exopthalmia An abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs
Glucagon A hrmone that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose
Glycogenesis The conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liverfor later use as needed.
Glucogenesis The formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of carbhydrates
Growth Hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth. AKA: Somatotropic Hormone
Hyoerparethyroidism Hyperactivity of any of the four parethyroid glands, resulting in an oversecretion of parethyroid hormone.
Hyperpituitarism Overactivity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Insulin Shock A state of shock due to extremely low blood sugar level caused by an overdose of insulin, a decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise by a diabetic patient who is insulin deendent. Severe hypoglycemia is a medical emergency.
Metabolism The sum of all physical and chemical processes that take place within the body
Myxedema The most severe frm of hypothyroidism in the adult. This condition is characteized by puffiness of the hands and face; coarse, thickened edematous skin; an enlaged tongue; slow speech; loss of and dryness of the hair; sensitivity to the cold; drowsiness
Oxytocin A hormone screted by the posteror pituitary gland. This hormone stimulates the contractions of the uterus during childbirth and stimulates the release of milk from the breast of lactating women in response to the suckling reflex of the infant.
Progesterone A female hormone secreted by the ovaries primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticiption of a fertilized ovum, and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum.
Somatotrophic Hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the celllar processes necessary for normal body growth. AKA: Growth Hormone
Syndrome A group of symptoms occurring together, indcative of a particular disease or abnormality.
Tetany A condition characterized by severe cramping and twiching of the musles an sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints; A complication of hypocalcemia
Created by: sanzijessica