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# 5F Math Vocabulary

### vocabulary for the year

absolute value a number's distance from zero on a number line
acute angle an angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees and greater than 0 degrees
addends numbers that are being added in an addition problem
adjacent angles two angles that have a common side and a common vertex and whose interiors do not overlap
algebraic equations a mathematical sentence involving at least one variable and sometimes numbers and operation symbols
algebraic expressions a mathematical phrase involving at least one variable and sometimes numbers and operation symbols
algorithm a rule or procedure used to complete an exercise or solve a problem
interior angles the inside angle made by two rays
exterior angle the outside angle made by two rays
analog clock a device with an hour, minute, and second hand which shows a continuous sweep of time passing
area the amount of space in square units
formula for area A= L x W
associative property the sum or product of three or more numbers is the same, regardless of how the numbers are paired
attribute a characteristic or an object (color, shape, size...)
bar graph a graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to represent data that do not touch
benchmark fractions a fraction that can be used to estimate the size of other numbers: 0, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, 1
box and whisker plot organization of data in a graph that shows the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum values
capacity the maximum amount of liquid a container can hold
categorical data data that can be categorized, such as types of lunch food
chord a line segment joining any two points on a circle - does not cut through the middle
circle graph a graph in which a circle and its interior are divided into parts to represent the parts of a set of data
circumference the distance arounda circle or the maximum distance around a sphere
commutative property the sum or product of two numbers is the ame, regardless of the order of the numbers
compatible numbers a pair of numbers that is easy to work with mentally
composite numbers a natural number that has more than two factors
composite figure a figure that is made up of two or more shapes
cone a 3 dimensional shape having a circular base, a curved lateral surface and one vertex
congruent having exactly the amse size and shape =
contiguous touching, in actual contact, adjacent, adjoining
coordinate plane a two dimensional system in which a location is described by its distance from two perpendicular number lines called axes
cube a polyhedron with six square faces
cylinder a three dimensional figure shaped like a can of soup
decompose the process of breaking a number into smaller units for problem solving
diameter a line segment that passes through the center of the circle and has endpoints on the circle
difference teh result of a subtraction problem
digit any of the basic symbols used to write a numeral
distributive property when one of the factors of a product is written as a sum or difference, multiplying each addend first does not change the original product example: 3 x (4 + 5) = (3 x 4) + (3 x 5)
divisibility rules patterns that make it easier to determine whether a whole number is divisible by another whole number, without actually doing the division
double bar graph a bar graph used to compare two similar kinds or data
double line graph a line graph with two or more lines or line segments that represent two or more sets of data that reflect change over time
edge the line formed where two faces of a three dimensional figure intersect
elapsed time an amount of time between two events
equalities a mathematical sentence that contains a symbol in which the terms on either side of the symbol are equal
equation a statement that two mathematical expressions are equal
equilateral shape a shape in which all have sides that are the same length
equivalent equal in value but in a different form
estimate a close rathan that an exact answer
even number numbers ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0 (multiples of two)
expanded notation a way to write numbers that reflect the place value of each digit
exponential form a quantity expressed as a number raised to a power
face a two dimensional side of a three dimensional figure
factor one of two or more numbers that are multiplied together to get a product
frequency table a table that shows how often each item, number, or range of numbers occurs in a set of data
function table a table that lists pairs of numbers that shows a function
histogram a graphic representation of the frequency distribution of a continuous variable. The x axis bar label is a range of numbers
identity property of addition if you add zero to a number, the sum is the same as that given number
inequality a mathematical sentence that compares two amounts using the symbols <, >, =
input the number that you put into a function table
output the number that you get after completing a function on the original number
integers the set of whole numbers and their opposites
intersecting lines lines that cross and have exactly one point in common
inverse operation an operation that will undo another operation
irregular polygons a polygon whose sides is not the same length and whose angles are not all congruent
isosceles triangle a triangle that has at least two congruent sides
line a straight path that extends infinitely in opposite directions
line graph a graph in which data points are connected by line or line segments that represent data and reflect change over time
line plot a sketch of data in which check marks, x's, or other symbols above a labeled number line show the frequency of each value
line of symmetry a line that divides a figure or figures into two congruent parts that are mirror images of each other
line segments part of a line defined by two endpoints
mass the measure of the amount of matter of an object
mean the sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of elements in the set
range lowest number of a set subtracted from the highest number of that set (the spread)
median the middle number(or the average of the two middle numbers) in a set of numbers that are arranged from least to greatest
mode the number that occurs most often in a set of data
multiple a number that is the product of the given number and an interger
natural numbers counting numbers (1,2,3,4,5...)
nets a two dimensional shape that can be folded to form a three dimensional figure
linear a straight line
non linear not a straight line
numerical data data consisting of numbers
obtuse angle an angle whose measure is greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees
odd number a whole number that has 1,3,5,7, or 9 in the ones' place and that is not divisible by 2
operation an action performed on one or two numbers producing a single number result (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
ordered pair a pair of numbers of the form (x,y)that give a location of a point on a coordinate plane (coordinates)
ordinal number a number used to express position or order in a series, such as first, third, and tenth
outcomes the results of an event
outlier numerical data piece that is significantly larger or smaller than the rest of the data set
parallel lines lines that are the same distance apart and never meet
patterns a model, plan, or rule using words or variables to describe a set of shapes or numbers that repeat in a predictable way
percent part of 100 (out of 100)
perfect square the product of a number times itself
perimeter the sum of the lengths of the sides of a two dimensional figure
perpendicular lines two rays, lines, or line segments that form right angles
Pi ~3.14
pictograph a graph constructed with pictures or symbols
place value the relative worth of each number that is determined by its position
plane figure a figure that can be entirely contained in a single plane (flat)
polygon a closed two dimensional figure made up of segments called sides, which intersect only at their endpoints called vertices
polyhedron a closed three dimensional figure in which all the surfaces are polygons
prime factorization a composite number that is expressed as teh product of factors that are prime numbers
prism a polyhedron with two parallel faces (called bases)that are the same size and shape
probability a number from zero to one that indicates the likelihood that something (an event) will happen
product the result of multiplication
proportion an equation a/b=c/d that states that two ratios are equivalent
pyramid a polyhedron in which one face (the base) is a polygon and the other faces are formed by triangles with a common vertex (the apex)
quadrilateral a polygon with four sides
quadrant any of the four sections into which a rectangular coordinate grid is divided by the intersection of the x and y axes
quotient the result of division of one quantity by another
radius a line segment from the center of a circle or sphere to any point on the circle or sphere
range the difference between the maximum and minimum in a set of data
ratio comparisons of two quantities with like units (can be expressed as fractions, decimals, percents, or words)
ray a part of line that has one endpoint and extends endlessly in one direction
rectangular arrays a rectangular arrangement of objects in rows and columns in which each row has the same number of parts and each column has the same number of parts
rectangular prism a prism whos faces are all rectangles
reflection a transformation tha t"flips" a figure over a line or an object over a plane so that it becomes a mirror image of the original
regrouping a process in a mathematical operation wher numbers are renamed (borrowing)
regular polygon a polygon whose sides are the amse lengths and whose angles are equal
rhombus a parallelogram whose sides are all the same length (the angles are usually not right angles, but they may be right angles)
right angle an angle whose measure is ninety degrees
rotation a transformation obtained by rotating a figure around a given point often referred to as a turn
scalene triangle a triangle with sides of three different lengths and angles of three different sizes
rounding numbers replacing a number with a nearby number that is easier to work with
scientific notation a method of representing a number as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10
sequence a series of numbers that are predictable and can be extended using operations
skip count to count by multiples of a number
similar figure figures that are exactly the same shape, but not necessarily the same size
translation the motion of sliding an object or picture any direction along a straight line without rotation or reflection (same as a slide)
slope the measure of steepness of a line
sphere a three dimensional shape whose curved surface is at all points a given distance from its center point (a ball shape)
square root one factor of a number that is the product of this factor multiplied by itself
stem and leaf plot a method of organizing data for the purpose of comparison where the "leaf" is the number in the smallest place value and the "stem" includes the numbers in the larger place values
straight angle an angle whose measure is 180 degrees (formed by 2 opposite rays)
three dimensional a figure that has depth, width, and height
transformation rotation, reflection, translation
trapezoid a quadrilateral that has exactly one pair of parallel sides (no two sides need to be the same length)
tree diagram a method of finding all the possible outcomes of prime factorization or probability situations by systematically listing the possibilities
two dimensional objects that have length and width but no thickness
variable a symbol such as a letter, box, star... that is used to represent an unknown or undetermined value in an expression or number sentence (equation)
Venn diagram a pictorial representation of two or more sets showing elements that the sets have in common and elements that are unique to one or the other sets
vertex (vertices is plural) the point where two sides of a two dimensional figure meet or the point where two or more edges of a three dimensional figure meet
volume a measure of the amount of space occupied by a three dimensional shape, generally expressed in cubic units V = L x W x H
whole numbers the set of natural numbers pluse the number zero 0, 1, 2, 3...
decimal number system a place value number system based on groupings by powers of 10
Created by: donnafarley