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7th Grade History

Chapter 10

1. Who proposed that there must be a land in the Southern Hemisphere equal in size or mass to Europe and Asia, or without it the world would topple over? Greek Philosopher Ptolemy
2. Why did Medana name the Solomon Islands that name? For the riches found there. He named the islands after King Solmon and his riches.
3. Who was called by the Dutch to search for unknown Southern lands? Abel Tasman
4. Which two islands did he find? Tasmania and New Zealand
5. What did the Dutch name the land they found? New Holland
6. Who was aid to General Montcalm in Canada? Louis Antoine de Bougainville
7. Why was Bougainville's effort to construct a colony short-lived? Because of the political furor raised over French possession of the islands, conflicting with English and Spanish claims.
8. Because of Bougainvilee's ideas, what two types of scientists customarily accompanied explorers? Naturalist and astronomer
9. Who named an unusual vine after Captain Bougainville? Philibert Commerson
10a. What did philosophers of the Enlightenment say about Tahiti? It was an unspoiled paradise.
10b. What did they believe about people? That man was born unspoiled and that the effects of society spoiled him.
11 (ESSAY). What was Tahiti (and most of the Pacific Islands) really like? The people were cannibals, were in constant tribal warfare, and performed human sacrifices.
12. Who was the best-known explorer of the Pacific? James Cook
13. Who was the first man to sail completely around Antarctica? James Cook
14. What is one thing that set James Cook apart from other explorers? His fair and generous treatment of the natives.
15. Who was the first man to make peaceful contact with the Maoris of New Zealand? James Cook
16. What food did Captain Cook use to fight scurvy? Sauerkraut
17. What is the Great Barrier Reef? A 1,250 mile series of coral reefs off Australia's eastern shore. It stretches from Torres Strait south along Queensland.
18. Where does the word "aborigine" come from, and what does it mean? It comes from Latin, ab=from, origine=the beginning or origin. It applies to the native, or indigenous people of Australia.
19. How did the Aborigines treat other tribes? How did they treat early settlers? They were often involved in tribal conflict, but were rarely hostile to the early settlers.
20. What is the name of the first Australian colony, claimed by James Cook for the British? New South Wales
21. After traveling for 8 months, what did Arthur Phillips, the Fleet's captain, sight? Australia
22. What is Australia Day? The celebration of the day that the Fleet arrived in Australia, January 26, 1788.
23. Name 3 problems Phillips encountered that hindered the growth of a good colony. 1.His men and the convicts were not "skilled laborers". 2.The eucalyptus and gum trees they expected to use for building materials were too "hard" and ruined their "axes". 3. On the voyage his crew was healthy, but the "grain & flour" were ruined.
24. What happened to the convicts in Australia? They finished serving their prison terms and went on to be profitable member of the colony.
25. Who attempted to cross Australia's Blue Mountains? Gregory Blaxland
26. The Aboriginal paintings aren't __ or __ __, but rather stylized drawings of __, __, __, and __. landscapes, realistic works, animals, people, shapes, designs
27. What was the capital of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1927? Canberra
28. Who was Australia's main trade partner before World War II? England
29. Three areas of concern for Australia are the economy, civil rights for the __, and the environment. (Be able to discuss one concern for an essay question) Aborigines
30. What had the Pacific Islands developed even before the Europeans arrived? Inter-island trade and travel
31. Name 3 features of a high island. Consistent moisture, available fresh water, and fertile volcanic soil
32. Name the 3 groupings of the Pacific Islands. Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia
33. Which island grouping is defined by island size? Micronesia
34. 34.
35. Give this island grouping's root word and meaning. Micro=small
36. Who is Thor Heyerdahl? The Norwegian explorer who theorized that the first Polynesians came from South America, not Asia.
37. How did Marshall Islanders make ocean charts? They designed complicated wicker charts instead of star charts or maps.
38. Of the many islands claimed by the Europeans, how many were heavily colonized? Only a few
39. James Chalmers was to __ __ what Livingstone was to __. Both were __, bring the good news of the gospel. New Guinea, Africa, missionaries
40. Which Norwegian led the first exploration team to reach the South Pole? Roald Amundsen
41. Since World War II, have all of the Pacific Islands become independent? No. Some are still territories of New Zealand, France, and the USA.
42. What is the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)? Islands which are surrounded by the sea and have 212 miles of territory around them which they control.
ESSAY 1. Discuss Australia's economy, civil rights for the Aborigines, or environment. ESSAY 1.
ESSAY 2. What was Tahiti (and most of the Pacific Islands) Really like? ESSAY 2. The people were cannibals, were in constant tribal warfare, and performed human sacrifices.
Created by: LiseBrinkley