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Pathology Qtr 3

The liquid portion of the blood Plasma
Name the 3 types of cells suspended in the blood plasma Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, Thrombocytes (Platelets)
AKA Erythrocytes *Carry oxygen to the body tissues *Remove carbon dioxide *Most numerous of the blood cells Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
An immature red blood cell Erythroblast
AKA Leukocytes *Important part of the defense system *5 types: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes White Blood Cells (WBCs)
Cells involved in the process of clot formation Platelets/Thrombocytes
A decrease in the number of RBCs and/or hemoglobin *Results in a diminished supply of oxygen to the body tissues Anemia
Name the 2 primary types of anemia Primary & Secondary
Decreased production of RBCs Primary Anemias
Increased loss or destruction of RBCs AKA Hemolytic Anemias Secondary Anemias
*Primary Anemia *Associated with older age *Results from a lack of vitamin B12 *Characterized by a smooth, red, painful tongue and damage to the nervous system Pernicious Anemia
*Primary Anemia *Virtual stoppage of blood cell formation in the bone marrow *May be related to drugs, radiation, chemical agents, etc Aplastic Anemia
*Hemolytic Anemia (Secondary) *Genetic defect in the manufacture of hemoglobin *Results in an abnormal crescent shaped RBC *Very common in people of African descent Sickle-Cell Anemia
*Hemolytic Anemia (Secondary) *Problem of blood incompatibility between a mother and her unborn fetus Erythroblastosis Fetalis
An increase in the number of circulating WBCs Leukocytosis
A malignancy of the hemopoietic tissues of the body *Somtimes referred to as "Cancer of the Blood" Leukemia
How many major types of leukemia are there? 4
A decrease in WBCs Leukopenia
An increase in the number of blood cells in the body Polycythemia
An increase in RBCs AKA Polycythemia Vera *treated by phosphorus 32 Erythrocytosis
A hereditary bleeding disorder characterized by a greatly prolonged clotting time Hemophilia
Type of hemophilia that is due to the lack of the blood clotting factor VIII Hemophilia A
Type of hemophilia that is due to a lack of the blood clotting factor IX AKA Christmas Disease Hemophilia B
A decreased number of platelets in the blood Thrombocytopenia
Widespread, spontaneous hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes Purpura (Thrombocytopenic Purpura)
Bruise-like patches of hemorrhage under the skin Ecchymosis
Small, red spots of hemorrhage often described as "pin point" hemorrhages Petechiae
Massive bleeding from anywhere in the body Exsanguination
A decrease in the level of oxygen within a tissue Hypoxia
The presence of blood in the urine Hematuria
A condition which refers to excess blood in a body part Hyperemia (Congestion)
Excess blood in a body part which was actively (purposely) taken there by the arterial system Active Hyperemia
If the active hyperemia results from a normal, healthy bodily function it is known as... Active Physiological Hyperemia
If the active hyperemia is a result from some disease process it is known as... Active Pathological Hyperemia
Occurs when venous drainage from an area is decreased *always pathological & may be localized or generalized Passive Hyperemia
Localized Passive Hyperemia can be caused by.... *Clot formation in a vein *Thickening of vessel walls *Pressure from an outside lesion
Passive Hyperemia that is normally the result of a heart disorder which affects the efficiency of the heart's pumping action Generalized Passive Hyperemia AKA Hypostatic Congestion
Bluish discolorationof the tissues Cyanosis
The formation of a solid mass (blood clot) within the heart or vessels of the body Thrombosis *the mass is also known as a thrombus
The condition of an object having floated through the bloodstream and causing an obstruction of a vessel Embolism *the object is referred to as an embolus
Refers to decreased blood flow to a body part Ischemia
An area of tissue which was deprived of its blood supply dies, when as a result of ischemia is known as.... Infarction AKA Ischemic Necrosis *the area of dead tissue is known as an infarct
The escape of blood from the vascular system Hemorrhage
Tumor-like swelling filled with blood ex: Blood Blister Hematoma
Very dark, tarry feces or vomitus Melena
Bleeding into the pleural cavity Hemothorax
Bleeding into the pericardial cavity Hemapericardium
Bleeding into the peritoneal cavity Hemoperitoneum
Blood in the sputum (or from the lungs) Hemoptysis
Blood in the vomit (or from the stomach) Hematemesis
Bleeding from the nose Epistaxis
The process of blood changing from a liquid, free-flowing state to a semi-solid state Coagulation
The condition that results from a serious reduction of blood flow in the body resulting in reduced oxygen supply to the tissues Circulatory Shock
A mild form of shock due to a temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain Fainting (Syncope)
An excess accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body Edema
Generalized or widespread edema Anasarca
Edema which collects around an inflammation site Exudate
Edema of the pleural cavity Hydrothorax
Edema of the pericardial cavity Hydropericardium
Edema of the peritoneal cavity Ascites
A decrease in total body fluids Dehydration (Dessication)
Inner layer of epithelial tissue in the heart Endothelium
Middle layer of muscle tissue in the heart Myocardium
Outer layer or tissue of the heart Epicardium (visceral portion of the pericardium)
Name the two layers of the pericardium *Fibrous Pericardium -> outer layer *Serous Pericardium -> inner layer
Name the two layers of the serous pericardium *Parietal Serous Pericardium *Visceral Serous Pericardium (epicardium)
Two upper chambers that serve as the receiving chambers of the heart Atria
Two lower chambers that serve as pumping chambers of the heart Ventricles
Name the three vessels that open into the right atrium; transport O2 poor blood *Superior Vena Cava *Inferior Vena Cava *Coronary Sinus
Name the valve connecting the right atrium and right ventricle Tricuspid aka Right Atrioventricular Valve
Name the valve connecting the left atrium and left ventricle Mitral, Bicuspid aka Left Atrioventricular Valve
Name the valve O2 poor blood passes through to leave the right ventricle Pulmonary Semi-lunar Valve
Name the valve O2 rich blood passes through to leave the left ventricle Aortic Semi-lunar Valve
Shortness of breath Dyspnea
A quivering or spontaneous contraction of the individual cardiac cells Fibrillation
The area between the two layers of the pericardium become inflamed Pericarditis
An increase in the size of the heart due to an increase in the size of the muscle fibers Hypertrophy ex: athletic heart
An increase in the size of the heart or chamber due to a stretching of the muscle fibers in the walls of the chamber Dilatation ex: pathological heart
Blocking or closing off of the coronary arteries *Caused by arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, embolism Occlusion
Decreased blood flow Ischemia
Death of heart tissue due to a lack of blood supply Myocardial Infarction *area of dead tissue = infarct
The various changes which occur in the heart as a result of prolonged pumping against unusual resistance Hypertensive Heart Disease
High blood pressure Hypertension
Indicates the arterial pressure upon the vascular walls Systolic Pressure
Indicates the pressure within the arteries when the ventricles of the heart are relaxing and filling back up with blood Diastolic Pressure
The narrowing of an opening or passageway Stenosis aka Stricture
One or more of the cusps of the heart valve turns backwards into the atrium upon ventricular contraction Prolapse
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart or heart valves Bacterial Endocarditis
Characterized by chronic thrombi (vegetations) which occur on the valves Sub-acute Bacterial Endocarditis (SBE)
Inflammation of the heart muscle Myocarditis
A febrile systemic disease which normally follows an attack of tonsillitis or strep Rheumatic Fever
An excessive amount of fluid accumulates in the pericardial sac and restricts the heart Cardiac Tamponade
Small nodules that form in the heart caused by rheumatic fever Aschoff's Bodies
A general term given to the condition in which the heart is diseased and not able to adequately pump blood to meet the body's needs Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Disease of the heart muscle Cardiomyopathy
The opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta fails to close Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Bluish discoloration to the skin Cyanosis
The arteries of the heart become hardened, thickened, and inelastic as a result of the deposition of calcium in the walls Arteriosclerosis
Deposition of fatty deposits (plaque) in the artery walls Atherosclerosis
A localized weakening and dilation of an artery wall Aneurysm
Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm Stroke
Bulging, sac-like dilation on the wall of an artery Saccular Aneurysm
Tubular swelling of the artery around the entire circumference of an artery Fusiform Aneurysm
Weakening and separation between the walls of an artery Dissecting Aneurysm
Inflammation of an artery Arteritis
Inflammation of veins Phlebitis
Veins that become dilated and torturous Varicose Veins aka Varices
Chest pain associated with heart attacks Angina
Inflammation of veins that cause clots Thrombophlebitis
Ventricular Defect+Aorta shifts to the right+Coarction of the Pulmonary Artery+Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Tetrology of Fallot
Self digestion of tissues by cellular enzymes Autolysis
Surgical procedure to create an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its skin surface Colostomy
Surgery to remove the colon and rectum Proctocolectomy
Difficulty in swallowing Dysphagia
Name the three segments of the small intestine *Duodenum *Jejunum *Ileum
Name the four segments of the large intestine *Cecum *Colon *Rectum *Anal Canal
Inflammation of the mouth (oral mucosa) Stomatitis
Condition characterized by the formation of tiny white ulcers which form at the base of the gums, lips, & cheeks Aphthous Stomatitis *Ulcers = canker sores
A fungal infection of the oral cavity caused by Candida albicans Thrush
Caused by herpes simplex I Cold Sores aka Fever Blisters
Inflammatory lesions in the mouth caused by Treponema pallidum Mucous Patches
Inflammation of the gums (gingiva) Gingivitis
Inflammation of the tongue Glossitis
Inflammation of the tonsils Tonsilitis
Inflammation of the pharynx (throat) Pharyngitis
Inflammation of the esophagus Esophagitis
Inflammation of the stomach Gastritis
Vomiting of blood from the stomach Hematemesis
Heartburn Dyspepsia
A localized area of necrosis on the skin or mucous membrane Ulcer
Ulcers which occur in the stomach and duodenum (caused by Helicobacter pylori) Peptic Ulcers
Infection of the lining membrane of the abdominal cavity Peritonitis
Inflammation of the small intestine Enteritis
Inflammation of the colon Colitis
Inflammation of the rectum Proctitis
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix Appendicitis *treated by an appendectomy
The condition of having one or more diverticula Diverticulosis
Abnormal sac or pouch in the walls of a hollow organ Diverticula
Inflammation of diverticula Diverticulitis
Varicose veins in the rectal areas Hemorrhoids
Protrusion of an organ through the walls of the body cavity in which it is contained Hernia
A twisting loop of intestine Volvulus
Slipping or telescoping of one segment of intestine into the succeeding one Intussusception aka Invagination
Scar tissue forms and loops of the bowel adhere together where they normally would not Adhesions
Inflammation of the liver Hepatitis
Food borne or water borne illness, usually a less serious form of hepatitis Hepatitis A aka Infectious Hepatitis +caused by Hepatitis A virus
Blood borne pathogen likely transmitted through contaminated body fluid; may result in chronic hepatitis & perm. liver damage Hepatitis B aka Serum Hepatitis +caused by Hepatitis B virus
The "silent epidemic", higher risk of chronic liver disease, also a blood borne pathogen Hepatitis C aka non-A, non-B Hepatitis +caused by Hepatitis C virus
A long-term degeneration of the functioning cells of the liver with a proliferation of fibrous connective tissue & scarring Cirrhosis
Due to the build up of bile pigments (bilirubin) in the bloodstream Jaundice aka Icterus
Inflammation of the gallbladder Cholecystitis
Formation of gall stones Cholelithiasis
Inflammation of the bile ducts Cholangitis
Inflammation of the pancreas Pancreatitis
Inflammatory bowel disease Crohn's Disease aka Ileitis
Created by: sbarton