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CPC Study - Musculoskeletal System

How many bones are in the human body? 206
Primary function of skeletal system: provides organ protection, movement, framework, stores calcium, hematopoiesis
5 types of bones: long (tubular), short (cuboidal), flat, irregular, sesamoid
Patella is an example of this type of bone: sesamoid
Diaphysis shaft of a long bone
Epiphysis bulbular shaped ends of long bones
Epiphysial Line growth plate
Metaphysis flared portion of bone near epiphyseal plate
Periosteum dense, white outer covering
Cortical Bone hard bone beneath periosteum mainly found on shaft
This contains yellow marrow: medullary cavity
Cancellous bones trabecular or spongy bone that contains red bone marrow
Endosteum thin epithelial membrane lining medullary cavity of long bone
Divisions of skeleton: axial, appendicular
How many bones does the axial skeleton contain? 80
How many bones does the appendicular skeleton contain? 126
Divisions of the axial skeleton: skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, sacrum, ribs, sternum
4 divisions of skull bones: cranial, middle ear, face, hyoid
The bones of the skull: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, styloid, zygomatic process
zygomatic process cheek bone
Where is the styloid process found? below ear
Ethmoid area between orbits and nasal cavity
Sphenoid floor of cranium
Occipital posterior of cranium
Middle ear bones: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)
Bones of the face: nasal, maxilla, zygomatic, mandible, lacrimal, palate, vomer, nasal conchae
Maxilla upper jaw
mandible lower jawbone
3 types of turbinates (conchae): interior, middle, superior
What does the hyoid bone support? the tongue
Number of vertebrae in spine and their divisions: 33 - 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (sacrum fused in adults), 4 coccygeal (coccyx fused in adults)
How many pairs of ribs are there in a human body? 12 - 7 true, 3 false, 2 floating pairs
Ilium wing-shaped bone in uppermost part of hip
Acetabulum depression on lateral hip surface into which head of femur fits
Ischium posterior part of hip
Pubis anterior part of hip
Pubis Symphysis cartilage between pubic bones
Femur thighbone
Trochanter processes at neck of femur
Tibia shinbone
Patella kneecap
Fibula smaller lateral bone in lower leg
Talus ankle bone
Calcaneus heel bone
Metatarsals foot instep
Phalanges toes and fingers
Lateral Malleolus lower part of fibula
Medial Malleolus lower part of tibia
Clavicle collar bone
Scapula shoulder blade
Humerus upper arm
Radius forearm, thumb side
Ulna forearm, little finger side
Olecranon tip of elbow
Carpals wrist bones
Metacarpals hand bones
Classifications of joints: synarthrosis (immovable), amphiarthrosis (slightly movable), diarthrosis (considerably movable)
Types of diarthrosis: uniaxal, biaxial, multiaxial
Bursa sac of synovial fluid in tissue around a joint
Functions of muscular system: heat production, movement, posture, protection, shape
How many skeletal muscles are there? 600
Skeletal muscles are also known as: striated muscles
Types of muscles: skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Another name for smooth muscles: visceral muscles (nonstriated, involuntary linings)
Difference between tendons and ligaments: tendons anchor muscle to bone, ligaments anchor bones to bones
Flexion bend
Extension straighten
Abduction away
Adduction toward
Rotation turn on axis
Circumduction circular
Supination face upward
Pronation face down
Hyperextension overextension
Inversion inward
Eversion outward
Function of occipitofrontalis: raises eyebrows and wrinkles forehead
Function of corrugator supercilii: wrinkles forehead vertically
Function of orbicularis oris: opens mouth
Function of zygomaticus: elevates corners of mouth
Function of orbicularis oculi: opens and closes eyelid
Function of buccinator: smiling and blowing
These muscles are used in mastication: masseter, temporalis, pterygoids
Function of sternocleidomastoid: flexes head
Function of semispinalis capitis: extends head
Function of splenius capitis: extends, bends, rotates head to contracting side
Function of longissimus capitis: extends, bends, rotates head to contracting side
Function of trapezius: extends head
Muscles of upper extremities: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, trapezius
Muscles of the trunk: external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, quadratus lumborum
Respiratory muscles: diaphragm, external intercostals, internal intercostals
Muscles of the thigh: gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae, abductor brevis, abductor longus, abductor magnus, gracilis, ilipsoas, rectus femoris
Muscles of lower extremities: thigh muscles, hamstring group, quadriceps group, sartorius, tibialis anterior, peroneus group, gastrocnemius, soleus, extensor digitorum longus
Arthrocentesis injection and/or aspiration of joint
Arthrodesis surgical immobilization of joint
Hallux valgus bunion - abnormal increase in size of metatarsal head that results in displacement of great toe
Chondral referring to cartilage
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of medial nerve
Colles' Fracture fracture at lower end of radius that displaces bone posteriorly
Fasciectomy removal of band of fibrous tissue
Ganglion knot or knotlike mass
Kyphosis humpback
Lamina flat plate
Lordosis anterior curve of spine
Lumbodynia pain in lumbar area
Lysis releasing
Osteoarthritis degenerative condition of articular cartilage
Osteoclast absorbs or removes bone
Scoliosis lateral curve of spine
Spondylitis inflammation of vertebrae
Subluxation partial dislocation
Synchondrosis union between two bones
Tenodesis suturing of a tendon to a bone
Tenorrhaphy suture repair of tendon
Compound Fracture open fracture - broken bone penetrates skin
Simple Fracture closed fracture - broken bone doesn't penetrate skin
4 types of treatment for broken bone: reduction, closed reduction, immobilization, traction
Strain partial tear of a tendon
Sprain tearing or rupture of some part of musculature caused by overuse or overextension
Osteomyelitis bone infection
Osteoporosis decreased bone mass and density common in postmenopausal women and elderly
Osteomalacia softened bones in adults
Rickets softened growing bones in children
Paget's Disease osteitis deformans - abnormal bone remodeling and resorption resulting in enlarged, soft bones
3 types of spinal curvatures: lordosis (swayback), kyphosis (humpback), scoliosis (lateral curve)
Spina Bifida congenital abnormality - vertebrae do not close correctly around the spinal cord
OA osteoarthritis - degenerative wear of joints
RA rheumatoid arthritis - progressive inflammatory connective tissue disease of the joints
Lyme disease is an example of: septic arthritis
Gout inflammatory arthritis of great toe
AS ankylosing spondylitis - inflammatory disease of vertebral joints
Polymyositis general muscle inflammation causing weakness
4 types of bone tumors (base on origin): osteogenic (bone cells), chondrogenic (cartilage cells), collagenic (fibrous tissue cells), myelogenic (marrow cells)
Osteoma benign bone tumor
Chondroblastoma rare, usually benign cartilage tumor
Osteosarcoma malignant tumor of long bones usually in young adults
Multiple Myeloma malignant plasma cells in skeletal system and soft tissue, progressive and generally fatal
Chondrosarcoma malignant cartilage tumor
Rhabdomyosarcoma rare muscle tumor
Created by: dropgallow