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EKG Class 4, 5 6

Anatomy-Physiology-Conduction-Cardiac Cell

Location of the Heart Left of the sternum
Sternum Bone in center of chest
Heart size A fist
Ribs are attached to? The sternum
What side does heart point to? Left
Function of ribs Protects the internal organs
Xiphoid Process Cartilage at the end of sternum
Diaphragm Muscle that separates the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity
Function of Thoracic cavity Protects lungs and heart
Function of Abdominal cavity Protects all other organs below
Clavicles Collar bones
Heart is made up of how many layers? Three
Layers of the heart Endocardium, Myocardium, Pericardium
Endocardium Inside layer
Myocardium Middle layer
Pericardium Outer layer
What is the heart muscle? Myocardium
Function of the Pericardial sac Prevents friction of the pericardial sac and pericardium
Heart has how many chambers Four
First chamber of heart Right Atrium
Second chamber Left Atrium
Third chamber Right Ventricle
Fourth chamber Left Ventricle
Location of Interatrial septum Between the Atria
Location of Interventricular septum Between right & left ventricle
What divides the chamber vertically? Septum
Valves Keep blood moving in the right direction
Semilunar valves Send blood out of the heart
Pulmonic valve Sends blood out of the heart to the lungs
Aortic valve Sends blood out of the heart thru' the aorta to entire body
Semilunar valves Pulmonary & Aorta
AV valves Atrial ventricular valves
Atrial ventricular valves Sends blood from the atriums to the ventricles
AV valves Tricuspid & Mitral
Tricuspid valve Sends blood from the R atrium to the R ventricle
Mitral valve Sends blood from the L atrium to the L ventricle
Veins Carry unoxygenated blood to the heart
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
Two main veins Superior & Inferior vena cavae
Superior vena cava Carry unoxygenated blood from the upper portions of body to the heart
Inferior vena cava Carry unoxygenated blood from the lower portions of body to the heart
Exception veins Pulmonary veins
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood to the heart
Exception arteries Pulmonary arteries
Exception Pulmonary arteries Carry UNOXYGENATED blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Exception Pulmonary veins Carry OXYGENATED blood from the lungs to the heart
Largest artery AORTA
Aorta function Carry oxygenated blood to the entire body
Aorta Largest artery
Coronary Arteries First vessels off the Aorta
Right coronary artery Supplies oxygenated blood to the right side of the heart
Left coronary artery Pumps out the blood to the whole side of the heart muscle
Branches of left coronary artery Left anterior descending & Circumflex arteries
Left main portion of left coronary artery Window maker
Blockage to left main portion of left coronary artery causes MI & cardiac death
Circumflex artery function Supplies oxygenated blood to the lateral & posterior walls of the heart
Chordae tendineae location Attached to both tricuspid & Mitral valves
Chordae tendineae function Open and close valves when atriums are full
Aveoli Sacs in the lungs where un-oxygenated blood picks up oxygen
Low Pressure pump Right Heart pumping unoxygenated blood to lungs thru' right atrium & right ventricle
High Pressure pump Left Heart pumping oxygenated blood out to the body thru' left atrium & left ventricle
Normal blood pressure values 120/80
cardiac cycle takes 0.8 sec = 1 heart beat
Systole When ventricles contract and send blood thru' body
Diastole When the contraction ends and the valves relax
SA node Sinoatrial node
Sinoatrial node function Initiates heart beat
Pacemaker SA node
SA node location Right atrium
Internodal Pathways Bachman's bundle
Internodal Pathways function Causes atria to contract
Origin of internodal pathways SA node
Atrioventricular node AV node
Atrial contraction Firing of SA node=>Internodal Pathways=>AV node
Impulse pauses at AV node
Bundle of HIS Starts deporalization of ventricles
Right Bundle of HIS Stimulates Right ventricle
Left Bundle of HIS Stimulates Left ventricle
Bundle of HIS branches Anterior & Posterior fascicles
Anterior fascicle Stimulates front wall of left ventricles & Superior wall of left ventricle
Posterior fascicle Stimulates back wall of left ventricle & Inferior portion of left ventricle
Purkinje fibers Stimulates the Apex
APEX Tip of heart
Papillary muscles hold Chordae tendineae
Chordae tendineae anchors Tricuspid & Mitral valves
Atrial Contraction consists of: SA node, AV node & internodal Pathways
AV node is the: Relay electrical station between Atria & Ventricles
Ventrical Contraction consists of: Bundle of HIS, Bundle Branches, & Purkinje fibers
Endocardium function Membrane that lines cavities of heart wall and forms part of heart valves made of endocardial tissue
Cardiac cells location Myocardium
# of cells in the myocardium Three
Cardiac cells Electrical,Intercollated disc & Myocardial cells
Electrical cells function Backup system to the SA node
Intercollated disc function (specialized cells) Allows for conductivity from cell=>cell
Myocardial cells are: Muscle cells
Properties of Electrical cells Automaticity, Excitability & Conductivity
Automaticity Ability to generate an impulse
Excitability Ability to respond to impulse
Conductivity Ability to produce or transfer an impulse from cell=>cell
Two important cells for electrical conduction
Repolarization Resting phase
Depolarization Contraction phase
Sodium = Positive ion
Potassium Negative ion
Myocardial cells properties Contractility & Extensibility
Contractility Ability to lengthen & shorten
Extensibility Ability to stretch
Starts depolarization (contraction) Bundle of HIS
Muscular layer Myocardium
Three leaflet valve Tricuspid
Study of heart Cardiology
Upper chamber Atrium
Electrocardiogram EKG
Cartilage at end of rib cage Xiphoid Process
Active stage Depolarization
Between left atrium & Ventricle Mitral valve
Largest artery Aorta
Vessel to lungs Pulmonary artery
Electrical system Conduction
Wall between right and left side Septum
Picked up in lungs Oxygen
Repolarization Rest
Middle of chest Sternum
Leaftlet Cusp
End of atrial contraction Internal pathways
Spreads impulse to R atrium & L atrium Internal pathways
Begins ventricle contraction Bundle of His
Ends ventricle contraction Purkinje fibers
Created by: Moshort