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jamiebiologyunit2

chap 4, 5, 6 and 7

QuestionAnswer
A group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together on the same chromosome haplotype
This describes an allele combination whose heterozygote’s phenotype is an intermediate between those of the two homozygotes (for example, pink flowers). The dominant allele does not completely mask the recessive allele incomplete dominance
The gene A exhibits incomplete dominance. What can we expect about the offspring from the mating of two heterozygotes phenotypic ratios that match the genotypic ratios
In a heterozygote for two linked genes, when both dominant alleles are on one chromosome and both recessive alleles are on the other, the genes are in cis
What is NOT a feature of mitochondrial DNA one copy per mitochondrion
In familial hypercholesterolemia, homozygous for this allele lack receptors on liver cells that absorb cholesterol, heterozygotes have ½ the # of receptors and homozygous for the normal allele are phenotypically normal this is an example of incomplete dominance
An environmentally caused trait that appears to be inherited is called a phenocopy
The presence of two different alleles in mitochondria within the same cell is called heteroplasmy
Hairlessness in dogs is a dominant trait. One dominant allele results in hairless, 2 dominant alleles is lethal. If you cross 2 hairless dogs what is probability that a hairless will be born 1/3
You are studying a degenerative condition that appears to be passed on only by mother. Affected fathers don’t pass the trait to offspring. This suggests the trait might be mitochondrial
If the percent recombination between A and B is 12, between A and C is 4 and between B and C is 8, then the order of the genes on the chromosome is A-C-B
Alleles that are both expressed in a heterozygote are codominant
Given the gene sequence ABCDE, crossing over should occur least frequently between A-E
A man who is homozygous for A blood has a child with a woman who is homozygous for B blood. What is the probability that the child will have AB blood 100%
Hairless trait (H) in dogs is dominant to hairy (h) and lethal when homozygous. How would you create a pure breeding line of hairless dogs it cannot be done
Hairless trait (H) in dogs is dominant to hairy (h) and lethal when homozygous. Hairless, hairy and lethal represent phenotypes
A man with a recessive deafness allele on chromosome 17 marries a woman who also has a recessive deafness allele, but on chromosome 3. Based on this the probability that their children will be deaf is closest to 0%
A gene may have many alleles, but a person has only two alleles because a gene can be altered in many ways, but a person only has two copies of any gene
The Bombay phenotype is a result if how many interacting genes and is an example of 2, epistasis
Some people with polydactyly have more than 5 fingers, while others do not. This is an example of a phenotype that is- incompletely penetrant
The alleles that control which blood group antigens appear on the surfaces of red blood cells are codominant
In humans the dominance relationship between the A and B alleles of the ABO blood group gene is an example of codominance
The relationship of the I & H genes affects the expression of ABO blood in following ways-genotype of HH or Hh, AB produces blood type AB while genotype hh, AB produces type 0 this is an example of epistasis
Two albino individuals marry and start a family. Their first child has normal pigmentation. Does this indicate infidelity and why or why not no because each parent could have a different gene causing his or her albinism (genetic heterogeneity)
Two Mexican hairless dogs are crossed what ratio of hairy : hairless dogs is expected from offspring 2 hairless:1 hairy
A woman with type A blood has a child with type A blood. What blood types could the father possible have A, B, or AB
Some people with polydactyl do not have any extra digits, some have an extra toe, and others have an extra finger. This situation is an example of a trait that is both incompletely penetrant and variably expressive
Marfan Syndrome, a dominant single-gene defect is characterized by lens dislocation, long limbs, spindly fingers,a caved in chest & weakened aeorta. This is an example of what trait pleitropic
When a teratogen causes a birth defect that is similar to a genetic disorder this is referred to as a phenocopy
A geneticist crosses a plant with red flowers to a plant with white flowers. The offspring has ¼ red, ½ pink and ¼ white flowers, which allele is dominant neither, they are incompletely dominant
Which blood type is not possible between two parents with type A blood B
The term that is used to describe the severity or extent of a phenotype in an individual is expressivity
Which of the following diseases is an example of a pleiotropic condition porphyria variegate
If you examine a pedigree showing the transmission pattern of a mitochondrial gene mutation which would not be true-mothers pass the gene to offspring, fathers do not transmit the gene or only females will express the trait only females will express the trait
Who only transfers mitochondrial genes, male or female female
Many mitochondrial disorders involve mitochondria in a cell harboring different alleles and is called heteroplasmic
Diseases resulting from mutations in mitochondrial genes affect mitochondrial protein synthesis and cellular energy reactions
The first genetic linkage map was constructed in what organism fruit flies
Progeny that exibit a mixing of maternal and paternal alleles on a single chromosome are recombinants
The field that matches phenotypes to chromosomal variants is called cytogenetics
What describes how several allele variants for a particular gene can exist in a given population. For example hair colors of black, red, brown, blond etc multiple alleles
What allele combinations cause offspring to die early in development lethal
An allele combination in which the heterozygous phenotype is distinct from and not intermediate between those of the two homozygotes (ie AB blood) both alleles are expressed is called codominance
The stronger allele which is expressed of only on one chromosome dominant
An allele which must be present on both chromosomes to be expressed recessive
visible expression of the alleles phenotype
taking nucleus of a healthy adult cell and putting it into an egg of another cell somatic cell nuclear transfer
defect in which cell organelle would most likely cause fatigue mitochondria
another name for sex cells gametes
another term for reproductive organs gonads
chemicals or other agents that cause birth defects are called tetratogens
long tube in the male reproductive structure which joins to the urethra vas deferens
The second generation resulting from a typical genetic cross is F1
In a family that starts with you and your spouse, your grandchildren would be considered the F2
monohybrid cross BbxBb
An autosomal dominant trait can affect either sex
the phenotypic ratio expected from a dihybrid cross is 9:3:3:1
a man and his wife are both carriers of the recessive allele causing tay-sachs disease. If they have a normal child, what is the probability that the child is a carrier not a sufferer of Tay sachs 2/3
in a human pedigree that traces the inheritance of sickle cell disease, a half- filled circle represents heterozygous female
No matter how many children carriers of an autosomal recessive disorder have, the chances that their child will get the disorder is 1/4
Some combinations of alleles cause problems so severe that the fetus ceases to develop. Such lethal allele combinations appear to alter Mendelian ratios because homozygotes do not appear as progeny class
Allele T (Long tongue) exhibits incomplete dominance over the recessive allele t (short) tongue. A herterozygote for the tongue gene would have a tongue of intermediate length
Different alleles that are both expressed in a heterozygote are codominant
x-linked genes have different patterns of expression in females and males because there is no second copy of these genes
Linkage maps of the Y chromosome have been difficult to construct because the Y chromosome has no homolog with which to cross over
If a woman has a brother who is color blind she has a ___ chance of being a carrier 50%
A gene that determines the heaviness of a man's beard is sex linked
An allele that is dominant in one sex but recessive in the other is sex influenced
A gene on the Y crhomosome that determines maleness is called SRY
Disorders that are seen in men who have grandsons through their daughters who also express the disorder (the grandson) have an X linked recessive disorder
Prader-willi and Angelman syndromes are related to one another as a result of genomic imprint
what do 13 of the 37 mitochondrial genes code for? proteins that function in cellular respiration
affects a structure or function of the body that is present in only males or only females sex limited trait
an allele is dominant in one sex but recessive in the other sex influenced
genetic disease showing a mendelian pattern of inheritance, caused by a single mutation in the structure of DNA, which causes a single basic defect with pathologic consequences mendelian disorder
Which risk factor for coronary artery disease is uncontrollable family history
Leptin is secreted by ___cells to influence the action of___ adipose, hypothalamus
The empiric risk to a family member of an affected individual developing a disorder caused by a multifactorial trait increases with increasing relatedness to affected individuals
Populations that suddenly become sedentary and switch to a fatty diet reflect what type of influence on body weight environmental
Traits that have both inherited and environmental causes are termed multifactorial
A brother and sister share what percent of their genes 50%
Human height is an example of what trait polygenic
Assume that 3 pairs of alleles with no environmental modification control height. Each dominant allele is 4” to base of 4’ what are the ranges of height 4-6 feet
These twins originate as a single fertilized ovum; identical twins monzygotic
What trait is determined by more than one gene and varies continuously in expression polygenic traits
Polygenic traits are determined by more than one gene
Which of the following would most support the hypothesis that autism has an inherited component identical twins each have the condition
Multifactorial traits reflect both environmental and genetic influences
What seeks correlations between SNP patterns and phenotypes in large groups of individuals association studies
What is a controllable factor in assessing risk factors for cardiovascular disease stress
What is not an example of a multifactorial trait cystic fibrosis
Can a child have darker skin than either of his or her parents Yes
Which genotype would result in an individual with medium-colored skin AABBCC
Which of the following polygenic characteristics is probably a pure polygenic trait-one with no environmental input eye color
Heritability is a measurement that estimates the proportion of phenotypic variation in a certain population that is due to genetic differences within the population
Siblings and fraternal twins share __% of their genes 50%
Identical twins share __% of their genes 100%
In humans obesity has a heritability of 75%
A more informative was to assess the genetic component of a multifactorial trait is to study __who were separated at birth and raised in different environments monozygotic (MZ) twins
Geneticists calculate the __ of a trait, or the degree to which it is inherited, as the % of pairs in which both twins express the trait concordance
A trait more often present in both members of MZ twin pairs than in both DZ twin pairs has a large inherited component
The risk of recurrence of a trait based on its known incidence in a particular population refers to the empiric risk
The concordance between identical twins for body weight was calculated to be 0.42, what is the heredability of body weight 0.42
The concordance between fraternal twins for body weight was calculated to be 0.42, what is the heredability of body weight 0
A coefficient of relatedness of 100% indicates monozygotic twins
Characteristics shared by adopted children and their biological parents are mostly __ while their similarities with adoptive parents reflect __influences genetic, environmental
If a woman of 4’ height marries a man of 5’ height what is the maximum achievable height for a child they would produce 5 feet
In general, empiric risk for an individual increase with the severity of the disorder, the # of affected family members and how closely related the person is to affected individuals
A higher heritability would be found for a trait in a population that is in a uniform environment
Given that eye color is controlled by 2 pairs of genes, what are the genotypes of the lightest-eyed parents who could produce a child with medium brown eyes AaBb x Aabb
What makes use of SNP mapping, relates sequence patterns to the probability of developing a particular disorder and are more powerful than heritability studies genome-wide association studies
Genetic variance for a multifactorial polygenic trait is usually due to the additive effects of many __alleles of different genes recessive
Genome-side association studies seek correlations between SNP patterns and phenotypes in large groups of individuals
A gene encoding protein called __is involved in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease lipoprotein lipase
Which protein affects body weight leptin
Studies of Pima Indians have helped identify environmental influences for what disease obesity
Ghrelin is produced by what organ stomach
Leptin is secreted by __ cells to influence the action of the___ fat, hypothalamus
Genes that control lipid metabolism, blood clotting, blood pressure and cell adhesion contribute to cardiovascular health
The alleles that control which blood group antigens appear on the surface of red blood cells are codominant
A man who is homozygous for B blood has a child with a woman homozygous for O blood what is the probability that the child will have B blood 100%
Progeny that exhibit a mixing of maternal and paternal alleles on a single chromosome are recombinants
The mode of transmission of a mitochondrial trait is unusual in that it passes from mothers to all children
Which of the following blood types is not possible from two parents with type A blood B blood
A plant with red flowers is crossed with a white flower plant, the offspring has ¼ red, ½ pink and ¼ white which allele is dominant neither they are incompletely dominant
What is not true about X inactivation all cells in an adult female have the same X chromosome inactivated
If the __gene on the __chromosome is activated, hormones steer the human development along a male route SRY, Y
Calico cats have large patches of coat color, what can we conclude about the timing of X-inactivation it occurred early
Icthyosis is an X-linked recessive condition, which of the following is most likely true about a woman with this condition her mother was a carries and her father was affected
Linkage maps of the Y chromosome have been difficult to construct because the Y chromosome has no homolog with which to cross over
Unspecialized structures in embryos that develop into female sex organs are the mullerian ducts
Males are __for X-linked traits hemizygous
X-linked dominant mutant alleles are usually expressed more severely in males
A woman whose brother has hemophilia is worried about passing it on, what is the risk her son will have 1/4
In humans a male inherits one X from his mother and his fathers Y
What correctly represents a female homozygous recessive for an X-linked trait XbXb
What kind of trait affects body parts or functions present in only one gender a sex limited trait
An allele that is dominant in one sex but recessive in the other is sex influenced
In an XY embryo production of anti-mullerian hormaon inhibits development of what female structures uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina
A woman carrier of cystic fibrosis gene and her homozygous normal husband have a child w/cystic fibrosis why it is X-linked
Human males are hemizygous
A man has colorblindness and icthyosis, what is the chance that he will pass both conditions on to his sons 0%
The majority of calico cats are female, however a few rare males are observed what is the genotype of a male calico cat XbXbY
In genomic imprinting the expression of a genetic disorder depends on which parent transmits the disease causing allele
A human male inherits X-linked traits from his mother only
Once the SRY begins to function__cells begin to secrete anti mullerian hormone and__cells secrete testosterone sustentacular, interstitial
Which of the following disorders is not X-linked cystic fibrosis
Males and females are genetically equivalent because an X chromosome is inactivated in female cells
A woman whose husband worked at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor gives birth to a hemophiliac son should she blame the plant no because she might carry the hemophilia allele
If a woman has a brother who is color blind has what chance of being a carrier 50%
Can a male be a carrier for a sex-linked disease no males have only a single copy of sex linked genes
Individuals with 3 copies of most autosomes do not survive, individuals with an extra X chromosome survive with mild consequences, why the extra X chromosome is inactivated
An affected male and normal female have 4 kids, 2 affected girls and 2 normal sons. The girls with normal husbands have affected sons and daughters. The sons with normal wives had normal kids. What is mode of inheritance x-linked dominant
Consider a sex-linked recessive trait what crosses would produce males and females with different phenoytypes affected female and normal male
Pseudohermaphroditism caused by 5-alpha reductase deficiency leads to a female exterior, male interior & male genotype
In males genes on the X chromosome are expressed
What is the function of SRY transcription factor gene that stimulates male development
A gene that determines the heaviness of a mans beard is sex-limited
A female whose father was colorblind marries a normal male whose father was colorblind, chances their son will be colorblind is 50%
In humans if the SRY gene is not expressed the unspecialized gonads develop into ovaries
X-inactivation can account for individuals who are manifesting heterozygotes and show a mosaic pattern of expression
Y-linked inheritance traits are not transmitted from mother to son
Traits transferred from father to son, do not affect females and if involve infertility are not transmitted are Y-linked traits
Linkage maps of the Y chromosome have been difficult to construct because the Y chromosome has no homolog with which to cross over
The probability that the daughter of a woman w/dominant disease causing allele on X chromosome & normal male will be affected with disorder is 1/2
A gene on the Y chromosome that determines maleness is called SRY
A female whose father was colorblind marries a normal male whose father was colorblind what % will daughter be colorblind 0%
In humans males are__since they have two different sex chromosomes heterogametic
In genomic imprinting the expression of a genetic disorder depends on which parent transmits the disease causing allele
X-linked genes have different patterns of expressions in females and males because there is only one copy of these genes in males
PAR1 and PAR2 on both tips of the Y chromosome are pseudoautosomal regions
What would be the sex of an XXY individual male
Evidence suggests that homosexuality is partially inherited
The probability that a male inherited his Y chromosome from his maternal grandfather is 0%
What genetic condition is not sex linked sickle-cell anemia
Ichthysois and colorblindness are sex-linked conditions
Pattern baldness is a sex-influenced trait
Beard growth and pregnancy in humans are examples of sex-limited traits
Prader-Willi and Angleman syndrome are both deletions of same bands on long arn chromosome 15, but physical expression is different, it’s an example of genomic imprinting
What represents a male who inherits an X-linked dominant trait XBY
A human female inherits X-linked traits from both mother and father
Which item correctly represents a female who is homozygous recessive for an X-linked trait XbXb
The probability that a boy whose mother is heterozygous for a sex-linked trait inherits the recessive allele is 1/2
Which item correctly represents a male who inherits an X-linked dominant trait XBY
A man and a woman have son with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, an X-linked trait, what chance will daughter inherit it 0%
Which of the following is incorrect for an X-linked recessive trait affected female has an affected father and an affected or heterozygous mother
In humans females are the ___ sex Homogametic
A male with a missing SRY gene would be phenotypically Female
When Mendel crossed pure breeding peas having yellow seed color YY with pure breeding peas having green seed color yy all of the offspring had yellow seed color. YY and yy symbols represent genotype
In pea plants tall is dominant to short which of the following would be the genotype of a heterozygous tall plant Tt
A person who has two identical alleles for a particular gene is __for that gene homozygous
Mendels laws derive from meiosis
Two genes on the same chromosome can appear to assort independently if they are located far apart from each other
Distal symphalangism is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait In a pedigree you would expect this trait to occur once in every generation
Mendel followed the inheritance of traits through several generations in pea plants
Mendels laws are explained by chromosome behavior in meiosis
Alleles are alternate forms of a single gene
Medlels law of __states that for 2 genes on different chromosomes the inheritance of one does not influence the chance of inheritance for the other independent assortment
The occurance of affected individuals in every generation in a family suggests an autosomal dominant
In a human pedigree that traces the inheritance of sickle cell disease a half filled circle represents a heterozygous female
The probability that a child in a particular family will inherit a recessive disorder is ¼, if they have 4 children what is probability that 3rd child will inherit the disorder 1/4
Sickle cell anemia is a recessive trait. A woman with this disease has a child with a homogygous normal man (no family history of disease) what is probability they will have a normal homozygous normal child 0%
Which of the following phenotypic results is expected from a cross between two heterozygous dihybrids 9:3:3:1 ratio
A man and his wife are both carriers of the recessive allele causing Tay Sachs disease (chromosome 15) if they have a normal child what is probability that child is NOT a carrier 1/3
True breeding plants are always homozygous
Which of the following is a monohybrid cross Bb x Bb
In a family that starts with you, your grandchildren would be considered the F2 generation
Sickle cell anemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, which most correctly describes the genotype of an unaffected person who has a sibling with sickle cell anemia cannot be determined by the phenotype
The allele that masks the effects of the other is ___ and the masked allele is___ dominant, recessive
The genotype of a particular trait refers to the combination of alleles of the gene
Mendels characters are genes
A true breeding tall plant is crossed to a true breeding dwarf plant The F1 generation is then crossed to yield a F2 generation what is the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation 3tall:1dwarf
A __ cross yield a genotypic ratio of 1:2:1 and a phenotypic ratio of 3:1 monohybrid
A test cross is conducted between an individual with a dominant phenotype but unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual. The phenotypes of kids are 50% dominant what is genotype of unknown parent heterozygous
A diplois individual with 2 identical alleles of a gene is__while a__has 2 different alleles of a gene homozygous, heterozygote
What term describes the most common expression of a particular allele combination in a population dominant
What is the probability that two heterozygous individuals Hh will produce a homozygous recessive offspring 1/4
Consider a group of 100 heterozygous individuals (50 couples) all w/recessive disease allele. If 200 kids are born what % would theoretically be carries like their parents 50%
Pea plants w/yellow seed color Y is dominant to green seed y, in one experiment a cross produced 6022 plants w/yellow and 2001 plants w/green. Which describes the genotype of a plant with green color yy
Two carriers of albinism have 4 kids. 1 is albino and 3 are normal. What is probability that the next would be albino 25%
In a pedigree autosomal recessive traits tend to skip generations
The Amish couple has a 5th child w/ PKU what is probability that the 6th child will have both PKU and EvC 1/16
The genotypic ratio expected from a dihybrid cross is 9:3:3:1
Pea plants w/yellow seed color Y is dominant to green seed y in one experiment a cross produced 6022 plants w/yellow and 2001 plants w/green. Which describes genotype of plant with yellow color cannot be determined by looking at it
An adult sibling of a person who is known carrier of Tay sachs disease has a __chance of being a carrier, note homozygous recessive individual does not survive childhood 2/3
Which genotype is normally not found in a gamete aa
Mendels idea that alleles separate during gamete formation is called the law of segregation
Mendel called physical units responsible for the inheritance of traits “characters” The basis for his first law is that characters separate from each other during meiosis
A__can be used to follow the transmission of alleles & is based on probability. It represents how particular genes in gametes come together assuming they are carried on different chromosomes punnett square
The second generation resulting from a genetic cross is the F1 generation
For two traits A and B what are the genotypes of the gametes that a heterozygote would produce AB, Ab, aB, ab
The __rule of probability is useful in calculating the risk that certain individuals will inherit a particular genotype product
Using the product rule the probability that parents heterozygous for 2 traits (AaBb) will produce a homozygous recessive offspring (aabb) would be 1/16
Two phenotypically normal individuals have an affected child what can we conclude about the parents they both carry disease
In the cross AaBb x aabb what % of the offspring are expected to show a completely dominant phenotype 25%
Which of the following incorrectly identifies the mode of inheritance for the given genetic disease sickle cell dominant
Which of the following genotypes is considered doubly homozygous RRYY
In pea plants the allele for tall T is dominant to the allele for short t the genotype for a short pea is tt
James Poush discovered distal symphalangism in his family and published a report on findings this condition is inherited as autosomal dominant what best describes a person with this condition homozygous dominant or heterozygous dominant
Amish couple (both normal) have 4 kids. The 1st 3 are normal and 4th born with autosomal recessive disorder EvC, 6 fingered dwarfism from defective chromosome 4, probability that next child will also have 1/4
An autosomal dominant trait can affect either sex
Mendels idea that elementen separate during gamete formation is called the law of segregation
Which of the following crosses is a test cross unknown x aa
What term describes the most common expression of a particular allele combination ina population wild type
Kathys brother has cystic fibrosis, her husband has no history, what chance will Kathys kid inherit the CF allele and be a carrier of the CF mutation 2/3x1/2
Consider an autosomal dominant trait if unaffected parent and a heterozygous parent has a baby what chance will they have an unaffected child 50%
Relatives who have children together have a much higher risk of having children affected by a__condition recessive
Achondroplasia is a dominant form of dwarfism 2 affected individuals have a __chance of having an unaffected child 25%
Alleles that appear to skip generations, have disorders that are more severe and produce symptoms at earlier ages are recessive
When both males and females are affected and transmit the disease with equal frequency and successive generations are affected it’s an autosomal dominant trait
Can independent assortment be demonstrated in a monohybrid cross no you must examine the transmission of two or more genes
Which of the following is an example of a cross between two dihybrids AaBb x AaBb
Family relationships are displayed using pedigrees
Can a pedigree be inconclusive yes
Created by: Kathy Murphy Brundige Kathy Murphy Brundige on 2011-03-16



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