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CPC Study - Endocrine System

The Endocrine system affects these 3 things: growth, development, metabolism
This master gland is located in the sella turcica and secretes hormones: Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Where is the sella turcica located? the base of the brain
The anterior pituitary secretes these hormones: ACTH, FSH, GH (STH), LH, MSH, TSH, PRL
The posterior pituitary secretes these hormones: ADH, OT
What is ACTH and what does it do? adrenocorticotropic hormone - stimulates adrenal cortex and increases production of cortisol
What is FSH and what does it do? follicle-stimulating hormone - stimulates sperm and testosterone production in males; stimulates secretion of estrogen, follicle development and ovulation
What is GH (or STH) and what does it do? growth hormone (somatotropin hormone) - stimulates protein processing resulting in growth of bones, muscle, fat metabolism and maintains blood glucose levels
What is LH and what does it do? luteinizing hormone - stimulates testosterone production in males; secretion of progesterone and estrogen in women
What is MSH and what does it do? melanocyte-stimulating hormone - increases skin pigmentation
What is PRL and what does it do? prolactin - stimulates milk production and breast development
What is TSH and what does it do? thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) - stimulates thyroid gland
What is ADH and what does it do? antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) - stimulates reabsorption of water by kidney tubules and increases blood pressure by constricting arterioles
What is OT and what does it do? oxytocin - stimulates contractions during childbirth, production and release of milk
This bilobed gland overlies the trachea, secretes 2 hormones that increase cell metabolism and 1 that decreases blood calcium: thyroid
What are the T3 and T4 hormones and what do they do? thyroxine and trilodothyronine - increase cell metabolism
What does thyrocalcitonin do? decreases blood calcium
How many parathyroid glands are there, where are they located and what do they do? 4 - posterior side of thyroid - secrete PTH (parathyroid hormone) which promotes calcium homeostatis in bloodstream
How many adrenal glands are there, where are they located? 2 - on top of each kidney
This part of an adrenal gland secretes corticosteroids: adrenal cortex (outer region)
5 corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex: cortisol (increases blood glucose), aldosterone (increases reabsorption of sodium), androgen, estrogen, progestin (sexual characteristics)
This is the part of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamines: adrenal medulla (inner region)
What 2 catecholamines are secreted by the adrenal medulla and what do they do? epinephrine - dilates blood vessels to lower blood pressure, increase heart rate, dilate bronchial tubes, release glycogen for energy; norepinephrine - constricts blood vessels to raise blood pressure
This gland is located behind the stomach, contains islets of Langerhans and produces insulin, glucagon, somatostatin: pancreas
What do islets of Langerhans produce? insulin and glycogen hormones
T-lymphocytes are produced in this gland: thymus
The thalamus and pituitary are stimulated by this gland located between them: hypothalamus
Where is the pineal located and what does it do? between two cerebral hemispheres and above third ventricle - secretes melatonin (affects sleep cycle), responsible for delaying sexual maturation in children, also contains neurotransmitters
What is HCG and what does it do? human chorionic gonadotropin (secreted by placenta) - sustains pregnancy
Name the body's endocrine glands pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid (4), adrenal (2), pancreas, thymus, hyopthalamus, pineal, ovaries (2), placenta, testes (2)
Isthmus connection of two regions or structures
Thyroglossal duct a duct in embryo between thyroid and posterior tongue which occasionally persists into adult life and causes cysts, fistulas, sinuses
What causes diabetes mellitus? deficiency in insulin production or poor use of insulin by body cells
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus onset before 30 (peak onset, age 12). Includes beta islet cell destruction, ketoacidosis. Requires insulin.
Which type of diabetes is insulin-dependent? Type 1
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Adult onset, after age 30. Insidious onset/asymptomatic. 85% are obese at onset. Insulin is present, no ketoacidosis. Treated by dietary mgmt, hypoglycemics, and/or insulin
Most common cause of pituitary disorders: tumors
4 pituitary disorders and their causes: hypopituitarism (dwarfism) - deficiency in somatotropin, hyperpituitarism (gigantism) - excess of somatotropin, acromegaly - increased GH in adulthood, diabetes insipidus - insufficent antidiuretic hormone
This is the enlargement of thyroid gland in the neck goiter
2 names for hyperthyroidism: thyrotoxicosis, Grave's disease
Cushing Syndrome hypercortisolism - excess levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone
Addison's Disease primary adrenal insufficiency - deficiency of adrenocortical hormones resulting from destruction of adrenal glands
Hyperaldosteronism excess aldosterone secreted by adrenal cortex
Another name for primary hyperaldosteronism: Conn's syndrome
Pheochromocytoma benign tumor of adrenal medulla
Causes of goiter: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism
Hashimoto's thyroiditis auto-immune hypothyroidism
Tetany can be caused by this endocrine disorder: hypoparathyroidism
Conn's Syndrome primary hyperaldosteronism
Created by: dropgallow